Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for MRO Gene

Aliases for MRO Gene

  • Maestro 2 3 5
  • Male-Specific Transcription In The Developing Reproductive Organs 3 4
  • Beside The Ma29 Deletion 2 3
  • Protein Maestro 3 4
  • C18orf3 3 4
  • B29 3 4
  • Chromosome 18 Open Reading Frame 3 2
  • Protein B29 4
  • B29 Protein 2

External Ids for MRO Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for MRO Gene

  • C18orf3

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MRO Gene

  • GC18M046577
  • GC18M046578
  • GC18M048321
  • GC18M045176

Summaries for MRO Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MRO Gene

  • This gene is specifically transcribed in males before and after differentiation of testis, and the encoded protein may play an important role in a mammalian sex determination. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MRO Gene

MRO (Maestro) is a Protein Coding gene. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include binding. An important paralog of this gene is MROH2B.

Additional gene information for MRO Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MRO Gene

Genomics for MRO Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for MRO Gene

Promoters and enhancers for MRO Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH18J050819 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 607.9 +5.3 5251 2.1 CC2D1A ELF3 CTCF ZNF121 CEBPG MAFK ZBTB7A SP7 SP1 PPARG MRO RPL17P46 HNRNPA3P16 GC18M050796
GH18J050825 Promoter/Enhancer 0.7 EPDnew Ensembl 608.4 -0.4 -380 1.2 MRO GC18M050796
GH18J051027 Promoter/Enhancer 1.5 Ensembl ENCODE 10.6 -204.8 -204825 5.1 ELF3 CTCF ZFX NKRF POLR2A CEBPG GTF2F1 ZNF687 ZSCAN21 AHR SMAD4 LOC105372117 GC18M051028 ME2 RPL17P46 MRO ENSG00000267699 GC18M051107 GC18P050945
GH18J050868 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 12.1 -44.2 -44180 2.4 CBFA2T2 ZNF121 ZSCAN21 TRIM24 SP7 PRDM1 SMARCA4 GLIS2 ZNF600 PRDM10 ME2 MRO RPL17P46 GC18M050796
GH18J050790 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.7 +31.2 31231 8 SP1 RXRA ZIC2 ZSCAN4 ZNF747 SCRT2 JUND MYNN SCRT1 YY1 SMAD4 RPL17P46 MRO MBD1 MAPK4 HNRNPA3P16 LOC105372116 GC18M050796
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around MRO on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the MRO gene promoter:
  • Oct-B1
  • oct-B2
  • oct-B3
  • POU2F1
  • TBP

Genomic Locations for MRO Gene

Genomic Locations for MRO Gene
30,302 bases
Minus strand
30,283 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for MRO Gene

Genes around MRO on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MRO Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MRO Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MRO Gene

Proteins for MRO Gene

  • Protein details for MRO Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein maestro
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B7Z2I5
    • B7Z3B2
    • E9PAT5
    • E9PBI3
    • K7EKJ8
    • Q8N6K5

    Protein attributes for MRO Gene

    248 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    29054 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for MRO Gene

neXtProt entry for MRO Gene

Post-translational modifications for MRO Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MRO Gene

Domains & Families for MRO Gene

Gene Families for MRO Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for MRO Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MRO Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Protein B29 (MSTRO_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MRO: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRO Gene

Function for MRO Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for MRO Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MRO: view

Animal Models for MRO Gene

MGI Knock Outs for MRO:
  • Mro Mro<tm1H>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for MRO Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MRO

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials (abm): Clones for MRO - Now 50% OFF >
  • * MRO as ready-to-use vector or virus: ORF | Lenti- | Retro- | Adeno- | AAV- | Protein Vector - Browse All
  • * MRO tags and reporters available: His, HA, Myc, Flag, GFP, RFP, Luciferase - Browse All

No data available for Molecular function , Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MRO Gene

Localization for MRO Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRO Gene

Nucleus, nucleolus.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MRO gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 4
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MRO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005730 nucleolus IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRO: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for MRO Gene

Pathways & Interactions for MRO Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for MRO Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for MRO Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing top 2 STRING interactants - click image to see details)
Selected Interacting proteins: Q9BYG7-MSTRO_HUMAN ENSP00000397900 for MRO Gene via IID STRING

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MRO Gene


No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for MRO Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MRO Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for MRO Gene

Unigene Clusters for MRO Gene

Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials (abm): Clones for MRO - Now 50% OFF >
  • * MRO as ready-to-use vector or virus: ORF | Lenti- | Retro- | Adeno- | AAV- | Protein Vector - Browse All
  • * MRO tags and reporters available: His, HA, Myc, Flag, GFP, RFP, Luciferase - Browse All

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MRO Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b
SP1: -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - - -

Relevant External Links for MRO Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MRO Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for MRO Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MRO Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Amygdala (x5.5), Brain - Caudate (basal ganglia) (x5.2), and Brain - Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) (x5.0).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MRO Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MRO Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MRO Gene:

Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for MRO Gene

  • Nervous system(4.5)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MRO: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for MRO Gene

Orthologs for MRO Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MRO Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MRO 35 34
  • 99.19 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOC483979 34
  • 85.75 (n)
MRO 35
  • 75 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MRO 35 34
  • 85.28 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mro 17 35 34
  • 79.23 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mro 34
  • 73.6 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MRO 35
  • 38 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MRO 35
  • 34 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 35
  • 1 (a)
-- 35
  • 1 (a)
-- 35
  • 1 (a)
-- 35
-- 35
-- 35
-- 35
-- 35
-- 35
-- 35
-- 35
-- 35
-- 35
-- 35
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 35
  • 5 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta c11.1 35
  • 3 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea hpo-27 35
  • 2 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
Species where no ortholog for MRO was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for MRO Gene

Gene Tree for MRO (if available)
Gene Tree for MRO (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for MRO: view image

Paralogs for MRO Gene

Paralogs for MRO Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for MRO Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MRO: view

Variants for MRO Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MRO Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 18 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000074929 -- 50,824,510(-) A/G genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000085219 -- 50,815,585(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1000095672 -- 50,806,749(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1000156753 -- 50,807,922(-) T/C intron_variant
rs1000262207 -- 50,825,169(-) C/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MRO Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3642518 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1113926 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv527714 CNV gain 19592680
nsv576892 CNV gain 21841781
nsv576893 CNV loss 21841781
nsv9630 CNV loss 18304495
nsv978631 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for MRO Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 75.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 17.24; 98.11% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for MRO Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRO Gene

Disorders for MRO Gene

No disorders were found for MRO Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MRO Gene

Publications for MRO Gene

  1. Physical and transcriptional map of a 311-kb segment of chromosome 18q21, a candidate lung tumor suppressor locus. (PMID: 11401430) Yanaihara N … Yokota J (Genomics 2001) 2 3 4 58
  2. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T … Sugano S (Nature genetics 2004) 3 4 58
  3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  4. The elusive MAESTRO gene: Its human reproductive tissue-specific expression pattern. (PMID: 28406912) Kenigsberg S … Librach CL (PloS one 2017) 3 58
  5. hORFeome v3.1: a resource of human open reading frames representing over 10,000 human genes. (PMID: 17207965) Lamesch P … Vidal M (Genomics 2007) 3 58

Products for MRO Gene

Sources for MRO Gene

Loading form....