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Aliases for MPL Gene

Aliases for MPL Gene

  • MPL Proto-Oncogene, Thrombopoietin Receptor 2 3 5
  • Myeloproliferative Leukemia Virus Oncogene 2 3
  • Myeloproliferative Leukemia Protein 3 4
  • Proto-Oncogene C-Mpl 3 4
  • TPO-R 3 4
  • TPOR 3 4
  • Thrombopoietin Receptor 3
  • CD110 Antigen 4
  • THCYT2 3
  • C-MPL 3
  • CD110 3
  • MPLV 3

External Ids for MPL Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MPL Gene

  • GC01P043746
  • GC01P042803
  • GC01P043233
  • GC01P043216
  • GC01P043472
  • GC01P043576
  • GC01P043803
  • GC01P041923

Summaries for MPL Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MPL Gene

  • In 1990 an oncogene, v-mpl, was identified from the murine myeloproliferative leukemia virus that was capable of immortalizing bone marrow hematopoietic cells from different lineages. In 1992 the human homologue, named, c-mpl, was cloned. Sequence data revealed that c-mpl encoded a protein that was homologous with members of the hematopoietic receptor superfamily. Presence of anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides of c-mpl inhibited megakaryocyte colony formation. The ligand for c-mpl, thrombopoietin, was cloned in 1994. Thrombopoietin was shown to be the major regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis and platelet formation. The protein encoded by the c-mpl gene, CD110, is a 635 amino acid transmembrane domain, with two extracellular cytokine receptor domains and two intracellular cytokine receptor box motifs . TPO-R deficient mice were severely thrombocytopenic, emphasizing the important role of CD110 and thrombopoietin in megakaryocyte and platelet formation. Upon binding of thrombopoietin CD110 is dimerized and the JAK family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases, as well as the STAT family, the MAPK family, the adaptor protein Shc and the receptors themselves become tyrosine phosphorylated. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MPL Gene

MPL (MPL Proto-Oncogene, Thrombopoietin Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MPL include Myelofibrosis and Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia, Congenital. Among its related pathways are Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers and Integrin alphaIIb beta3 signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transmembrane signaling receptor activity and thrombopoietin receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is EPOR.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MPL Gene

  • Receptor for thrombopoietin. May represent a regulatory molecule specific for TPO-R-dependent immune responses.

Gene Wiki entry for MPL Gene

Additional gene information for MPL Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MPL Gene

Genomics for MPL Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for MPL Gene

Promoters and enhancers for MPL Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J043337 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 650.7 +0.4 395 0.1 MPL GC01P043344 GC01P043343
GH01J043365 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.2 +29.8 29800 4.2 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 SLC30A9 POLR2B ELOVL1 MED8 MPL SZT2 HYI MIR6734
GH01J043452 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 11.2 +116.9 116934 4.5 PKNOX1 SIN3A GLI4 ZNF2 IRF4 YY1 TCF12 GLIS2 GATA2 RUNX3 HYI HYI-AS1 MED8 DMAP1 MPL PTPRF SZT2 ENSG00000229431 KDM4A-AS1 ST3GAL3
GH01J043283 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.3 -52.1 -52121 3.2 FOXA2 SIN3A RAD21 RARA ZNF121 EGR1 PRPF4 SP5 CEBPB ELF1 C1orf210 CFAP57 SZT2 MPL ENSG00000229431 MED8 LOC105378687 CDC20 ELOVL1 TMEM125
GH01J043293 Enhancer 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.3 -42.3 -42345 3.8 HDGF FOXA2 KLF17 RAD21 YY1 ATF7 ETV6 IKZF2 RUNX3 RXRA MED8 EBNA1BP2 MPL CDC20 LOC105378687 ELOVL1 ENSG00000229431 SZT2 FAM183A ATP6V0B
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around MPL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the MPL gene promoter:
  • STAT3
  • AML1a

Genomic Locations for MPL Gene

Genomic Locations for MPL Gene
17,047 bases
Plus strand
16,661 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MPL Gene

Genes around MPL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MPL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MPL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MPL Gene

Proteins for MPL Gene

  • Protein details for MPL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Thrombopoietin receptor
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5JUZ0

    Protein attributes for MPL Gene

    635 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    71245 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer (PubMed:25538044). Interacts with ATXN2L.

    Alternative splice isoforms for MPL Gene


neXtProt entry for MPL Gene

Post-translational modifications for MPL Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys-553 and Lys-573 targets MPL for degradation by both the lysosomal and proteasomal pathways. The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase CBL significantly contributes to this ubiquitination.
  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=573 and Lys553
  • Glycosylation at isoforms=2358, Asn298, Asn178, and isoforms=2117
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for MPL Gene

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for MPL (Thrombopoietin R/Tpo R)
  • Abcam antibodies for MPL
  • Boster Bio Antibodies for MPL
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SCBT) Antibodies for MPL

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MPL Gene

Domains & Families for MPL Gene

Gene Families for MPL Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • CD markers
  • Disease related genes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for MPL Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MPL Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • The WSXWS motif appears to be necessary for proper protein folding and thereby efficient intracellular transport and cell-surface receptor binding.
  • Belongs to the type I cytokine receptor family. Type 1 subfamily.
  • The WSXWS motif appears to be necessary for proper protein folding and thereby efficient intracellular transport and cell-surface receptor binding.
  • The box 1 motif is required for JAK interaction and/or activation.
  • Belongs to the type I cytokine receptor family. Type 1 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MPL: view

Function for MPL Gene

Molecular function for MPL Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for thrombopoietin. May represent a regulatory molecule specific for TPO-R-dependent immune responses.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene homolog,hematopoietic growth factor receptor superfamily

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for MPL Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MPL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004888 transmembrane signaling receptor activity TAS 8020956
GO:0004896 cytokine receptor activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI,IEA 24931576
GO:0038164 thrombopoietin receptor activity IMP 25538044
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MPL: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MPL: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for MPL Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for MPL Gene

MGI Knock Outs for MPL:
  • Mpl Mpl<tm1Wsa>
  • Mpl Mpl<tm2.2Wsa>
  • Mpl Mpl<tm1Fjs>
  • Mpl Mpl<tm1Mwm>

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for MPL
  • R&D Systems cDNA Clones for MPL (Thrombopoietin R/Tpo R)

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MPL Gene

Localization for MPL Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MPL Gene

Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Golgi apparatus. Cell surface.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MPL gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
golgi apparatus 5
extracellular 3
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1
nucleus 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
cytosol 1
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MPL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IDA,IEA 25538044
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 8020956
GO:0009986 cell surface IDA,IEA 25538044
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MPL: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for MPL Gene

Pathways & Interactions for MPL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MPL: view

Pathways by source for MPL Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for MPL Gene

Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MPL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001780 neutrophil homeostasis IEA --
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS 8020956
GO:0008283 cell proliferation TAS 8020956
GO:0019221 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0035702 monocyte homeostasis IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MPL: view

Drugs & Compounds for MPL Gene

(19) Drugs for MPL Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, IUPHAR, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Eltrombopag Approved Pharma agonist, Target 0
Romiplostim Approved Pharma inhibitor, Target, agonist 0
Avatrombopag Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, agonist 0
Thrombopoietin Investigational Pharma Agonist, agonist, Target 0
SB-559448 Investigational Pharma agonist, Target 0

(10) Additional Compounds for MPL Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MPL: view

Transcripts for MPL Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MPL Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(4) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(4) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for MPL Gene

Myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for MPL
  • R&D Systems cDNA Clones for MPL (Thrombopoietin R/Tpo R)

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MPL Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12
SP1: -
SP2: - -

Relevant External Links for MPL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MPL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for MPL Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MPL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (35.6), Heart (23.0), and Platelet (10.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for MPL Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MPL Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MPL Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MPL Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MPL Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed at a low level in a large number of cells of hematopoietic origin. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are always found to be coexpressed.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for MPL Gene

  • Blood(3)
  • Bone marrow(2.9)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for MPL Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • lymphatic
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • ear
  • eye
  • face
  • head
  • jaw
  • lip
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • nose
  • skull
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • heart
  • lung
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
  • intestine
  • large intestine
  • liver
  • small intestine
  • spleen
  • stomach
  • pelvis
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • bone marrow
  • coagulation system
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • red blood cell
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • sweat gland
  • vertebrae
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MPL: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for MPL Gene

Orthologs for MPL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for MPL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MPL 34 33
  • 86.78 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mpl 16 34 33
  • 85.15 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mpl 33
  • 84.38 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MPL 34
  • 83 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MPL 34
  • 48 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MPL 34 33
  • 52.94 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MPL 34
  • 30 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mpl 34 33
  • 41.17 (n)
Species where no ortholog for MPL was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for MPL Gene

Gene Tree for MPL (if available)
Gene Tree for MPL (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for MPL: view image

Paralogs for MPL Gene

Paralogs for MPL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MPL: view

Variants for MPL Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MPL Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1006158872 amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (CAMT) [MIM:604498] 43,346,931(+) G/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1057519752 uncertain-significance, likely-pathogenic, not specified, Myeloproliferative Neoplasm 43,349,307(+) A/C/G/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs115780311 likely-benign, uncertain-significance, Essential thrombocythemia, Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia 43,354,278(+) G/A/C 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant
rs117166528 likely-benign, Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, Essential thrombocythemia 43,353,952(+) G/A 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant
rs121913610 pathogenic, Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia 43,339,435(+) C/A/G/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, stop_gained

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MPL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3585866 CNV loss 21293372
nsv546128 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for MPL Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 79.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.49; 55.27% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for MPL Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MPL Gene

Disorders for MPL Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(33) MalaCards diseases for MPL Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia, somatic
amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, congenital
  • camt
thrombocythemia 2
  • thcyt2
essential thrombocythemia
  • essential thrombocythaemia
polycythemia vera
  • pv
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search MPL in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (CAMT) [MIM:604498]: Disease characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia and megakaryocytopenia with no physical anomalies. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16470591, ECO:0000269 PubMed:25538044}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Thrombocythemia 2 (THCYT2) [MIM:601977]: A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by excessive platelet production, resulting in increased numbers of circulating platelets. It can be associated with spontaneous hemorrhages and thrombotic episodes. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14764528, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19483125, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23441089, ECO:0000269 PubMed:25538044}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) [MIM:254450]: A chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by replacement of the bone marrow by fibrous tissue, extramedullary hematopoiesis, anemia, leukoerythroblastosis and hepatosplenomegaly. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16834459, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16868251}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for MPL

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
Tumor Gene Database
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MPL: view

No data available for Genatlas for MPL Gene

Publications for MPL Gene

  1. Mpl Baltimore: a thrombopoietin receptor polymorphism associated with thrombocytosis. (PMID: 15269348) Moliterno AR … Spivak JL (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004) 3 4 22 44 58
  2. Screening for MPL mutations in essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis: normal Mpl expression and absence of constitutive STAT3 and STAT5 activation in MPLW515L-positive platelets. (PMID: 20113333) Glembotsky AC … Heller PG (European journal of haematology 2010) 3 22 44 58
  3. The Asn505 mutation of the c-MPL gene, which causes familial essential thrombocythemia, induces autonomous homodimerization of the c-Mpl protein due to strong amino acid polarity. (PMID: 19483125) Ding J … Ueda R (Blood 2009) 3 4 22 58
  4. MPLW515L is a novel somatic activating mutation in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. (PMID: 16834459) Pikman Y … Levine RL (PLoS medicine 2006) 3 4 22 58
  5. MPL515 mutations in myeloproliferative and other myeloid disorders: a study of 1182 patients. (PMID: 16868251) Pardanani AD … Tefferi A (Blood 2006) 3 4 44 58

Products for MPL Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for MPL
  • Boster Bio Antibodies for MPL
  • Boster Bio ELISA Kits for MPL

Sources for MPL Gene

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