Aliases for MPC2 Gene

Aliases for MPC2 Gene

  • Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 2 2 3 4 5
  • Brain Protein 44 2 3 4
  • SLC54A2 2 3
  • BRP44 3 4
  • DKFZP564B167 2
  • MPC2 5

External Ids for MPC2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for MPC2 Gene

  • BRP44

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MPC2 Gene

  • GC01M167886

Summaries for MPC2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for MPC2 Gene

MPC2 (Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MPC2 include Colon Mucinous Adenocarcinoma. Among its related pathways are Pyruvate metabolism and Citric Acid (TCA) cycle and Glucose / Energy Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include pyruvate transmembrane transporter activity. An important paralog of this gene is MPC1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for MPC2 Gene

Gene Wiki entry for MPC2 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for MPC2 Gene

Genomics for MPC2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for MPC2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J167933 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 259.9 +0.5 529 5.8 CHD2 TBP ZBTB10 SP1 FEZF1 SIX5 NR2C1 MNT IKZF1 BRCA1 MPC2 DCAF6 HSALNG0008260 HSALNG0008261 ADCY10 POU2F1 MPZL1 DPT
GH01J167904 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 20.2 +31.3 31271 4 CEBPA IKZF1 FOXA2 ZNF341 ZNF316 FOSL1 RAD21 NFE2 ZBTB48 EHMT2 MPC2 DCAF6 ENSG00000232194 ENSG00000250762 piR-30876-008 lnc-MPC2-2 ADCY10 RF00017-386 MPZL1
GH01J168134 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 6.7 -199.2 -199229 3.4 ZBTB10 IKZF1 NONO SIN3A SIN3B ZNF639 ZNF341 ZNF843 KLF9 SP2 GPR161 lnc-MPC2-1 TIPRL SFT2D2 MPC2
GH01J168177 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 5.2 -242.3 -242252 3 TBP MXD4 FEZF1 CEBPA SIX5 NR2C1 MNT DEK IKZF1 SMAD5 TIPRL MPZL1 POU2F1 GPR161 MPC2 HSALNG0008269 SFT2D2
GH01J167923 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10 +14.1 14072 2.4 FEZF1 ZEB1 CEBPB ZNF639 NBN EP300 TAL1 TAF9B ZNF843 ZFP91 MIR378G-001 MPC2 ADCY10 RF00017-387 DCAF6 HSALNG0008260
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around MPC2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for MPC2

Genomic Locations for MPC2 Gene

Latest Assembly
20,398 bases
Minus strand

Previous Assembly
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
20,398 bases
Minus strand

(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
20,312 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for MPC2 Gene

Genes around MPC2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MPC2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MPC2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MPC2 Gene

Proteins for MPC2 Gene

  • Protein details for MPC2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K261
    • Q3SXR6
    • Q6FIF3

    Protein attributes for MPC2 Gene

    127 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    14279 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • The functional 150 kDa pyruvate import complex is a heteromer of MPC1 and MPC2.

neXtProt entry for MPC2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for MPC2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys27
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for MPC2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MPC2 Gene

Domains & Families for MPC2 Gene

Gene Families for MPC2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Transporters

Protein Domains for MPC2 Gene

  • Protein of unknown function UPF0041

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MPC2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Brain protein 44 (BR44_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) (TC 2.A.105) family.
  • Belongs to the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) (TC 2.A.105) family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MPC2: view

Function for MPC2 Gene

Molecular function for MPC2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Mediates the uptake of pyruvate into mitochondria.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for MPC2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MPC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 32296183
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IPI 32296183
GO:0050833 pyruvate transmembrane transporter activity IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MPC2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MPC2: view

miRNA for MPC2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MPC2

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for MPC2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MPC2 Gene

Localization for MPC2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MPC2 Gene

Mitochondrion inner membrane. Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MPC2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 4
cytosol 2
plasma membrane 1
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MPC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus HDA 21630459
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA,IDA --
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MPC2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for MPC2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for MPC2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MPC2: view

Pathways by source for MPC2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MPC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006850 mitochondrial pyruvate transmembrane transport IEA,IBA 21873635
GO:0035774 positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus IEA --
GO:0061732 mitochondrial acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process from pyruvate IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MPC2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MPC2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MPC2 Gene

(1) Drugs for MPC2 Gene - From: ApexBio

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
UK 5099 Pharma MCTs and MPC inhibitor, MCT inhibitor; also inhibits of pyruvate transport 0

(1) ApexBio Compounds for MPC2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
UK-5099 MCTs and MPC inhibitor 56396-35-1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MPC2: view

Drug products for research

Transcripts for MPC2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MPC2 Gene

11 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for MPC2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MPC2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d
SP1: -
SP2: - -
SP3: -
SP5: -

Relevant External Links for MPC2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for

Expression for MPC2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for MPC2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MPC2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Nasal epithelium (52.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for MPC2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MPC2 Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for MPC2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MPC2 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for MPC2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Liver(3.2)
  • Pancreas(3)
  • Muscle(2.9)
  • Kidney(2.8)
  • Heart(2.7)
  • Intestine(2.5)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MPC2: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for MPC2 Gene

Orthologs for MPC2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for MPC2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia BRP44 30 31
  • 99.48 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MPC2 31
  • 96 (a)
BRP44 30
  • 93.44 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MPC2 30 31
  • 92.39 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MPC2 31
  • 90 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mpc2 30 17 31
  • 89.33 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MPC2 31
  • 89 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mpc2 30
  • 88.53 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves BRP44 30 31
  • 76.27 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MPC2 31
  • 84 (a)
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mpc2 30
  • 72.95 (n)
Str.6574 30
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.15887 30
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mpc2 30 31
  • 71.51 (n)
MPC2 (2 of 2) 31
  • 62 (a)
wufb22g07 30
Rainbow Trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8373 30
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG9399 30 31
  • 56.48 (n)
CG9396 31
  • 41 (a)
CG32832 31
  • 36 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F53F10.3 31
  • 46 (a)
K. Lactis Yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A05500g 30
  • 58.78 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Eremothecium gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AEL210C 30
  • 50.74 (n)
Baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes -- 31
  • 35 (a)
FMP43 31
  • 34 (a)
MPC3 33 33
Thale Cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT4G22310 30
  • 55.56 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os07g0449100 30
  • 56.3 (n)
Fission Yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPAC24B11.09 30
  • 57.33 (n)
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.1905 31
  • 52 (a)
CSA.932 31
  • 43 (a)
Bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU03155 30
  • 51.2 (n)
Species where no ortholog for MPC2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MPC2 Gene

Gene Tree for MPC2 (if available)
Gene Tree for MPC2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for MPC2: view image

Paralogs for MPC2 Gene

Paralogs for MPC2 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for MPC2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

  • Q5R3B4_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MPC2: view

Variants for MPC2 Gene

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for MPC2 Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MPC2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2572362 CNV deletion 19546169
esv32660 CNV loss 17666407
nsv1078878 OTHER inversion 25765185

Variation tolerance for MPC2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 49.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.61; 45.16% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for MPC2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for MPC2 Gene

Disorders for MPC2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for MPC2 Gene - From: COP

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
colon mucinous adenocarcinoma
  • colonic mucinous adenocarcinoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search MPC2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for MPC2

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MPC2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MPC2 Gene

Publications for MPC2 Gene

  1. A mitochondrial pyruvate carrier required for pyruvate uptake in yeast, Drosophila, and humans. (PMID: 22628558) Bricker DK … Rutter J (Science (New York, N.Y.) 2012) 2 3 4
  2. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. (PMID: 16710414) Gregory SG … Prigmore E (Nature 2006) 3 4
  3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4
  4. Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs. (PMID: 11230166) Wiemann S … Poustka A (Genome research 2001) 3 4
  5. Structural characterization of a heterogeneous family of rat brain mRNAs. (PMID: 3022128) Tsou AP … Sutcliffe JG (Molecular and cellular biology 1986) 2 3

Products for MPC2 Gene

Sources for MPC2 Gene