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Aliases for MLNR Gene

Aliases for MLNR Gene

  • Motilin Receptor 2 3 3 5
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 38 2 3
  • GPR38 3 4
  • MTLR1 3 4
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 38 4
  • MTLR 4

External Ids for MLNR Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for MLNR Gene

  • GPR38

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MLNR Gene

  • GC13P047593
  • GC13P048692
  • GC13P049794
  • GC13P030588

Summaries for MLNR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MLNR Gene

  • Motilin is a 22 amino acid peptide hormone expressed throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The protein encoded by this gene is a motilin receptor which is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. This member is a multi-pass transmembrane protein, and is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of hypomotility disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GeneCards Summary for MLNR Gene

MLNR (Motilin Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MLNR include Gastroparesis and Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GHSR.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MLNR Gene

  • Receptor for motilin.

Tocris Summary for MLNR Gene

  • The motilin receptor is a Gq/11-protein-coupled receptor that mediates progastrokinetic effects. It is found at its highest concentrations in the nerves of the antral wall of the stomach and is also found at significant levels throughout the smooth muscle of the upper GI tract.

Gene Wiki entry for MLNR Gene

Additional gene information for MLNR Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MLNR Gene

Genomics for MLNR Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for MLNR Gene

Promoters and enhancers for MLNR Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH13J049219 Promoter/Enhancer 1.4 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 +0.2 244 1.7 CTCF SUZ12 ZFP64 MAX ZNF48 E2F1 CTBP1 POLR2A EZH2 ZNF282 MLNR SETDB2 TRIM13 KCNRG PPP1R26P1 FNDC3A THAP12P10 LOC105370203
GH13J049400 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 10.9 +181.2 181195 1.2 HDAC1 ZBTB40 CTBP1 GATA3 NCOR1 POLR2A CREM CBFA2T3 NCOA1 REST CAB39L PHF11 MLNR GC13P049390 GC13P049413
GH13J049257 Enhancer 0.6 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.9 +37.9 37938 1.4 MLNR CAB39L GC13M049248 CDADC1 GC13P049296
GH13J049146 Enhancer 0.6 Ensembl ENCODE 11.5 -73.3 -73340 1.4 JUND STAT2 MLNR COX7CP1 RNY3P2 FNDC3A
GH13J049298 Enhancer 0.5 ENCODE 11.3 +79.1 79129 1 TGIF2 DRAP1 SOX5 SOX13 ZNF18 MLNR PHF11 CDADC1 GC13P049296 GC13P049390
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around MLNR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the MLNR gene promoter:
  • Egr-2
  • IRF-7A
  • STAT1
  • AML1a
  • STAT1beta
  • STAT1alpha
  • FOXD3
  • Pax-2
  • GCNF-2
  • Pax-2a

Genomic Locations for MLNR Gene

Genomic Locations for MLNR Gene
2,040 bases
Plus strand
2,040 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MLNR Gene

Genes around MLNR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MLNR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MLNR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MLNR Gene

Proteins for MLNR Gene

  • Protein details for MLNR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Motilin receptor
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for MLNR Gene

    412 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    45344 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for MLNR Gene


neXtProt entry for MLNR Gene

Post-translational modifications for MLNR Gene

  • Glycosylation at isoforms=2192 and isoforms=26
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for MLNR Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MLNR Gene

Domains & Families for MLNR Gene

Gene Families for MLNR Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for MLNR Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MLNR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MLNR: view

Function for MLNR Gene

Molecular function for MLNR Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for motilin.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MLNR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
GO:0008528 G-protein coupled peptide receptor activity IPI 10381885
GO:0016520 growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MLNR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MLNR: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for MLNR Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MLNR

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for MLNR

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MLNR Gene

Localization for MLNR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MLNR Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MLNR gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 2
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MLNR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MLNR: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for MLNR Gene

Pathways & Interactions for MLNR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MLNR: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for MLNR Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MLNR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MLNR: view

Drugs & Compounds for MLNR Gene

(37) Drugs for MLNR Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Roxithromycin Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Pharma Full agonist, Agonist, inhibitor 7
Erythromycin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma Target, agonist 101
Azithromycin Approved Pharma binder 365
Mitemcinal Investigational Pharma agonist, Target 0
Camicinal Investigational Pharma 0

(4) Additional Compounds for MLNR Gene - From: IUPHAR and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Full agonist, Agonist

(3) Tocris Compounds for MLNR Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
ANQ 11125 Selective motilin receptor antagonist 153966-48-4
MA 2029 Potent and selective, competitive motilin receptor antagonist; orally active 287206-61-5
Motilin (human, porcine) Endogenous peptide regulator of gastrointestinal motility 52906-92-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MLNR: view

Transcripts for MLNR Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MLNR Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(1) Additional mRNA sequences :
(3) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for MLNR Gene

Motilin receptor:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for MLNR

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MLNR Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MLNR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MLNR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for MLNR Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MLNR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Stomach (x15.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MLNR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Monocytes (51.4) and Stomach (17.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for MLNR Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MLNR Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MLNR Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MLNR Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MLNR Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed only in thyroid, stomach, and bone marrow.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for MLNR Gene

  • Stomach(4.4)
  • Intestine(2.1)
  • Nervous system(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MLNR: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for MLNR Gene

Orthologs for MLNR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MLNR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MLNR 34 33
  • 86.73 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MLNR 33
  • 84.88 (n)
  • 77 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MLNR 34
  • 71 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Trhr2 34
  • 24 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MLNR 34 33
  • 73.31 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MLNR 34
  • 61 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mlnr 33
  • 57.82 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100536406 33
  • 57.88 (n)
  • 50 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta capaR 34
  • 23 (a)
Pk1r 34
  • 23 (a)
CG8795 34
  • 18 (a)
CG8784 34
  • 15 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea nmur-1 34
  • 23 (a)
nmur-2 34
  • 23 (a)
nmur-4 34
  • 23 (a)
nmur-3 34
  • 20 (a)
Species where no ortholog for MLNR was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MLNR Gene

Gene Tree for MLNR (if available)
Gene Tree for MLNR (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for MLNR: view image

Paralogs for MLNR Gene

Paralogs for MLNR Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for MLNR Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MLNR: view

Variants for MLNR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MLNR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 13 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000320863 -- 49,222,801(+) T/G downstream_transcript_variant
rs1001521180 -- 49,222,070(+) G/A coding_sequence_variant, stop_gained
rs1002393036 -- 49,221,307(+) C/A intron_variant
rs1002551915 -- 49,220,694(+) G/A coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs1002730919 -- 49,221,541(+) T/G intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MLNR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832607 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for MLNR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 68.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.94; 36.02% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for MLNR Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MLNR Gene

Disorders for MLNR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(7) MalaCards diseases for MLNR Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • gastric atonia
diabetic autonomic neuropathy
  • diabetic neuropathies
colonic pseudo-obstruction
  • primary chronic pseudo-obstruction of colon
functional gastric disease
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search MLNR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for MLNR

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MLNR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MLNR Gene

Publications for MLNR Gene

  1. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor family members and ligands. (PMID: 11322507) Smith RG … Howard A (Endocrine 2001) 3 4 22 58
  2. Receptor for motilin identified in the human gastrointestinal system. (PMID: 10381885) Feighner SD … Howard AD (Science (New York, N.Y.) 1999) 3 4 22 58
  3. Cloning and characterization of two human G protein-coupled receptor genes (GPR38 and GPR39) related to the growth hormone secretagogue and neurotensin receptors. (PMID: 9441746) McKee KK … Van der Ploeg LH (Genomics 1997) 2 3 4 58
  4. L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha subunit 1C is a novel candidate gene associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism: an application of haplotype-based analysis for multiple linked single nucleotide polymorphisms. (PMID: 20424473) Yokoyama K … Hosoya T (Nephron. Clinical practice 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Mutational analysis of predicted intracellular loop domains of human motilin receptor. (PMID: 18032475) Tokunaga H … Onji M (American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 2008) 3 22 58

Products for MLNR Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for MLNR

Sources for MLNR Gene

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