There are believed to be over 100 different glycosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of protein-bound and lipid-bound oligosaccharides. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:alpha-3-D-mannoside beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I is a medial-Golgi enzyme essential for the synthesis of hybrid and complex N-glycans. The protein, encoded by a single exon, shows typical features of ... See more...

Aliases for MGAT1 Gene

Aliases for MGAT1 Gene

  • Alpha-1,3-Mannosyl-Glycoprotein 2-Beta-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 3 4 5
  • Mannosyl (Alpha-1,3-)-Glycoprotein Beta-1,2-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 3
  • N-Glycosyl-Oligosaccharide-Glycoprotein N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase I 3 4
  • EC 2.4.1.101 4 51
  • GlcNAc-T I 3 4
  • GLCNAC-TI 2 3
  • GLCT1 3 4
  • GLYT1 3 4
  • GNT-1 2 3
  • GNT-I 3 4
  • GnTI 2 3
  • MGAT 3 4
  • MGAT1 5
  • GGNT1 4

External Ids for MGAT1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for MGAT1 Gene

  • MGAT
  • GLYT1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MGAT1 Gene

  • GC05M180347
  • GC05M181203
  • GC05M180281
  • GC05M180327
  • GC05M180150
  • GC05M180218
  • GC05M174942
  • GC05M180790
  • GC05M180797

Summaries for MGAT1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MGAT1 Gene

  • There are believed to be over 100 different glycosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of protein-bound and lipid-bound oligosaccharides. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:alpha-3-D-mannoside beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I is a medial-Golgi enzyme essential for the synthesis of hybrid and complex N-glycans. The protein, encoded by a single exon, shows typical features of a type II transmembrane protein. The protein is believed to be essential for normal embryogenesis. Several variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MGAT1 Gene

MGAT1 (Alpha-1,3-Mannosyl-Glycoprotein 2-Beta-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MGAT1 include Immunodeficiency 47 and Congenital Disorder Of Glycosylation, Type Iia. Among its related pathways are Transport to the Golgi and subsequent modification and Metabolism of proteins. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity and alpha-1,3-mannosylglycoprotein 2-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is POMGNT1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for MGAT1 Gene

  • Initiates complex N-linked carbohydrate formation. Essential for the conversion of high-mannose to hybrid and complex N-glycans.

Gene Wiki entry for MGAT1 Gene

Additional gene information for MGAT1 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for MGAT1 Gene

Genomics for MGAT1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for MGAT1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH05J180798 Promoter/Enhancer 2.7 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 618.6 +6.6 6581 21.1 SP1 HNRNPL CREB1 GATAD2A CTCF TEAD4 PRDM10 ZNF629 RFX1 LEF1 MGAT1 ENSG00000280161 lnc-BTNL8-6 ENSG00000233937 ENSG00000245317 GFPT2 RN7SKP150 RACK1 TRIM52-AS1 ENSG00000250900
GH05J181221 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 18.2 -407.5 -407461 4.6 ARHGAP35 SP1 HNRNPL GATAD2A ZBTB33 TEAD4 YBX1 PRDM10 REST ZNF629 MIR4638 TRIM41 TRK-CTT2-3 TRV-CAC1-5 piR-33161-005 piR-33164-014 piR-39017-005 piR-39608 piR-40458 ENSG00000233937
GH05J181215 Promoter/Enhancer 1.6 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 19 -401.9 -401949 4.8 CEBPG CREB1 GATAD2A ZBTB33 TEAD4 PRDM10 ZNF629 TFE3 ZNF512 LEF1 TRIM7 ENSG00000286644 TRV-AAC1-4 X17516 piR-33164-013 ENSG00000233937 TRIM52 ZFP62 RACK1 TRIM52-AS1
GH05J181187 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 10.5 -374.5 -374478 6.7 ZNF221 CREB1 GATAD2A CTCF HNRNPL TEAD4 PRDM10 REST ZNF629 SOX13 ENSG00000250222 LINC01962 LOC105377769 TRP-TGG3-1 TRT-TGT6-1 TRV-AAC2-1 piR-33519 lnc-OR2V2-3 piR-44992-003 TRIM52
GH05J181240 Promoter/Enhancer 2.4 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 9.8 -429.5 -429547 9 BRCA1 CEBPG SP1 HNRNPL ATF7 TEAD4 PRDM10 ZNF629 REST SIX5 ENSG00000233937 RACK1 CTC-338M12.4 SNORD95 lnc-TRIM52-1 TRIM52-AS1 TRIM52 ENSG00000248367 MAPK9 MGAT1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around MGAT1 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for MGAT1

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the MGAT1 gene promoter:
  • AREB6
  • HFH-1
  • Sp1

Genomic Locations for MGAT1 Gene

Genomic Locations for MGAT1 Gene
chr5:180,784,780-180,815,652
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
30,873 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr5:180,217,541-180,242,652
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
25,112 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for MGAT1 Gene

Genes around MGAT1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MGAT1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MGAT1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MGAT1 Gene

Proteins for MGAT1 Gene

  • Protein details for MGAT1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P26572-MGAT1_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Alpha-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
    Protein Accession:
    P26572
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K404
    • B3KRU8
    • D3DWR1
    • Q6IBE3

    Protein attributes for MGAT1 Gene

    Size:
    445 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    50878 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Mn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29035;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with MGAT4D.

neXtProt entry for MGAT1 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for MGAT1 Gene

P26572:
  • DFFPGLGW
  • FWDDWMR
  • YYKIARHY
  • ELEPKWP
  • IPILVIACDRSTVRRCLDKLLHYRPSAE

Post-translational modifications for MGAT1 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Thr88 and Ser320
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for MGAT1 Gene

Gene Families for MGAT1 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for MGAT1 Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Glycosyl transferase, family 13
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MGAT1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • N-glycosyl-oligosaccharide-glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (MGAT1_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P26572

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

MGAT1_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the glycosyltransferase 13 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the glycosyltransferase 13 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MGAT1: view

Function for MGAT1 Gene

Molecular function for MGAT1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Initiates complex N-linked carbohydrate formation. Essential for the conversion of high-mannose to hybrid and complex N-glycans.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=N(4)-(alpha-D-Man-(1->3)-[alpha-D-Man-(1->3)-[alpha-D-Man-(1->6)]-alpha-D-Man-(1->6)]-beta-D-Man-(1->4)-beta-D-GlcNAc-(1->4)-beta-D-GlcNAc)-L-asparaginyl-[protein] (N-glucan mannose isomer 5A1,2) + UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine = H(+) + N(4)-{beta-D-GlcNAc-(1->2)-alpha-D-Man-(1->3)-[alpha-D-Man-(1->3)-[alpha-D-Man-(1->6)]-alpha-D-Man-(1->6)]-beta-D-Man-(1->4)-beta-D-GlcNAc-(1->4)-beta-D-GlcNAc}-L-asparaginyl-[protein] + UDP; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:11456, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:14367, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:14368, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:57705, ChEBI:CHEBI:58223, ChEBI:CHEBI:59087, ChEBI:CHEBI:60625; EC=2.4.1.101; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:1702225};.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
mannosyl (alpha-1,3-) glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetyl-glucosaminyltransferase,Golgi,biosynthesis of complex Asn-linked (N) glycans

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for MGAT1 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for MGAT1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MGAT1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003827 alpha-1,3-mannosylglycoprotein 2-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity TAS --
GO:0008375 acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity IBA 21873635
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0016757 transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups IEA --
GO:0030145 manganese ion binding IDA 1702225
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MGAT1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MGAT1: view

Animal Models for MGAT1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for MGAT1:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for MGAT1

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for MGAT1

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MGAT1 Gene

Localization for MGAT1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MGAT1 Gene

Golgi apparatus membrane. Single-pass type II membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MGAT1 gene
Compartment Confidence
golgi apparatus 5
extracellular 4
plasma membrane 2
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
cytosol 2
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1
nucleus 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MGAT1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane TAS --
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IBA 21873635
GO:0016020 membrane IEA,HDA 19946888
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 19199708
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MGAT1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for MGAT1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for MGAT1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MGAT1: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P26572-MGAT1_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Protein modification; protein glycosylation.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MGAT1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001701 in utero embryonic development IEA --
GO:0006049 UDP-N-acetylglucosamine catabolic process IEA --
GO:0006486 protein glycosylation IBA 21873635
GO:0006487 protein N-linked glycosylation IBA 21873635
GO:0018279 protein N-linked glycosylation via asparagine IDA 1702225
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MGAT1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MGAT1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MGAT1 Gene

(8) Drugs for MGAT1 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Uridine-Diphosphate-N-Acetylglucosamine Experimental Pharma Target 0
Uridine 5'-diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(8) Additional Compounds for MGAT1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine
  • (2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3-(acetylamino)-4,5-Dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl dihydrogen diphosphate (non-preferred name)
  • UDP-GlcNAc
  • UDP-N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine
  • UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine
  • URIDINE-diphosphATE-N-acetylglucosamine
528-04-1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MGAT1: view

Transcripts for MGAT1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MGAT1 Gene

23 REFSEQ mRNAs :
28 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
25 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for MGAT1

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for MGAT1

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MGAT1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ·
SP1: - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13: - - - - -
SP14: - - - -
SP15: - - -
SP16: - -
SP17:
SP18:
SP19:
SP20:
SP21: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP22: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP23: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP24: - - - - - - - - -
SP25: - - - - - - - - -
SP26:

ExUns: 13c ^ 14a · 14b · 14c · 14d · 14e ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b · 16c · 16d · 16e · 16f · 16g · 16h · 16i · 16j · 16k · 16l · 16m · 16n · 16o ^ 17 ^ 18
SP1: - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - -
SP3: -
SP4: - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - -
SP10: - - - -
SP11: - - - - -
SP12: - - - - -
SP13: - - - - - - -
SP14: - - - - - - -
SP15: - - - - - - -
SP16: - - - - - - -
SP17: - - - - - -
SP18: - - - - - -
SP19:
SP20:
SP21: - - - - - - -
SP22: -
SP23: - - - - - - -
SP24:
SP25:
SP26:

Relevant External Links for MGAT1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
MGAT1

Expression for MGAT1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for MGAT1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MGAT1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x5.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MGAT1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Serum (12.8), Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (12.1), Liver (9.2), and Plasma (7.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for MGAT1 Gene



Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for MGAT1

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MGAT1 Gene:

Hs.519818

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for MGAT1 Gene

  • Kidney(4.8)
  • Nervous system(4.6)
  • Liver(4.6)
  • Skin(4.4)
  • Lung(3.7)
  • Blood(3.5)
  • Spleen(3.3)
  • Intestine(3.1)
  • Eye(2.6)
  • Muscle(2.5)
  • Stomach(2.4)
  • Heart(2.3)
  • Lymph node(2.2)
  • Pancreas(2.2)
  • Thyroid gland(2)
  • Adrenal gland(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MGAT1: view

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for MGAT1 Gene

Orthologs for MGAT1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for MGAT1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MGAT1 30 31
  • 99.18 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MGAT1 30 31
  • 88.24 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MGAT1 30 31
  • 87.79 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mgat1 30
  • 85.54 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mgat1 30 17 31
  • 84.64 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MGAT1 31
  • 80 (a)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MGAT1 31
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mgat1 30
  • 60.81 (n)
Str.5502 30
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC52514 30
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mgat1b 30 31
  • 65.32 (n)
OneToMany
mgat1a 31
  • 52 (a)
OneToMany
zgc66030 30
Rainbow Trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.3816 30
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP005347 30
  • 62.06 (n)
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Mgat1 30 31
  • 59.5 (n)
OneToOne
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gly-14 30 31
  • 48.34 (n)
OneToMany
gly-13 31
  • 36 (a)
OneToMany
gly-12 32
  • 36 (a)
Thale Cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons CGL1 30
  • 47.46 (n)
Rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os02g0832800 30
  • 48.53 (n)
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.8479 31
  • 39 (a)
OneToOne
Sea Vase
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.1484 30
Species where no ortholog for MGAT1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MGAT1 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for MGAT1 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for MGAT1 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for MGAT1: view image

Paralogs for MGAT1 Gene

Paralogs for MGAT1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MGAT1: view

Variants for MGAT1 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for MGAT1 Gene