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Aliases for MAOA Gene

Aliases for MAOA Gene

  • Monoamine Oxidase A 2 3 5
  • Monoamine Oxidase Type A 3 4
  • EC 4 56
  • MAO-A 3 4
  • Amine Oxidase [Flavin-Containing] A 3
  • EC 1.4.3 56
  • BRNRS 3

External Ids for MAOA Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MAOA Gene

  • GC0XP041545
  • GC0XP041794
  • GC0XP042360
  • GC0XP042636
  • GC0XP043271
  • GC0XP043400
  • GC0XP043515
  • GC0XP041246

Summaries for MAOA Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MAOA Gene

  • This gene is one of two neighboring gene family members that encode mitochondrial enzymes which catalyze the oxidative deamination of amines, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Mutation of this gene results in Brunner syndrome. This gene has also been associated with a variety of other psychiatric disorders, including antisocial behavior. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

GeneCards Summary for MAOA Gene

MAOA (Monoamine Oxidase A) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MAOA include Brunner Syndrome and Antisocial Personality Disorder. Among its related pathways are Cytokine Signaling in Immune system and superpathway of tryptophan utilization. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and primary amine oxidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is MAOB.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MAOA Gene

  • Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.

Tocris Summary for MAOA Gene

  • Monoamine Oxidases (MAO) catalyze the oxidation of monoamines such as dopamine, serotonin and adrenalin. They are found bound to the outer membrane of mitochondria in most cell types in the body. Two subtypes of MAO have been identified: MAO-A and MAO-B.

Gene Wiki entry for MAOA Gene

Additional gene information for MAOA Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MAOA Gene

Genomics for MAOA Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for MAOA Gene

Promoters and enhancers for MAOA Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH0XI043654 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 605.9 +1.6 1630 4.9 ATF1 ARID4B SIN3A BRCA1 YY1 ZNF207 KLF7 ATF7 SP3 SP5 MAOA LOC643167 GC0XM043837
GH0XI043698 Promoter/Enhancer 0.7 EPDnew dbSUPER 550.3 +44.0 44034 0.1 MAOA GC0XM043837
GH0XI043589 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 58.7 -64.5 -64547 2 ELF3 SOX13 FOXA2 ARID4B MAX CEBPG RAD21 RARA HOMEZ GATAD2A MAOA GC0XM043588 PIR34051
GH0XI043692 Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 43.6 +39.2 39220 2.5 ELF3 FOXA2 ARID4B DMAP1 RAD21 RFX5 RARA YY1 CREM MIXL1 MAOA GC0XM043837
GH0XI043642 Enhancer 1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 51.2 -11.0 -10982 1.9 ZNF316 HMBOX1 NFE2 MAFK EMSY TRIM28 MAOA GC0XM043588
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around MAOA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the MAOA gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for MAOA Gene

Genomic Locations for MAOA Gene
91,918 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MAOA Gene

Genes around MAOA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MAOA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MAOA Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MAOA Gene

Proteins for MAOA Gene

  • Protein details for MAOA Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DF46
    • Q16426

    Protein attributes for MAOA Gene

    527 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    59682 Da
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer, homo- or heterodimer (containing two subunits of similar size). Each subunit contains a covalently bound flavin. Enzymatically active as monomer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MAOA Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for MAOA Gene


neXtProt entry for MAOA Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for MAOA Gene


Post-translational modifications for MAOA Gene

  • Ubiquitination at posLast=469469
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for MAOA Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for MAOA Gene

Gene Families for MAOA Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the flavin monoamine oxidase family.
  • Belongs to the flavin monoamine oxidase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MAOA: view

Function for MAOA Gene

Molecular function for MAOA Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
monoamine oxidase A,overexpressed in female panic disorders
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
RCH(2)NHR + H(2)O + O(2) = RCHO + RNH(2) + H(2)O(2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for MAOA Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for MAOA Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MAOA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0008131 primary amine oxidase activity TAS --
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MAOA: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MAOA: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for MAOA Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for MAOA Gene

MGI Knock Outs for MAOA:

Clone Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MAOA Gene

Localization for MAOA Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MAOA Gene

Mitochondrion outer membrane; Single-pass type IV membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MAOA gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 3
extracellular 2
cytosol 2
plasma membrane 1
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MAOA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA --
GO:0005741 mitochondrial outer membrane TAS 24252804
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MAOA: view

Pathways & Interactions for MAOA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MAOA: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MAOA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006576 cellular biogenic amine metabolic process TAS 8211186
GO:0006584 catecholamine metabolic process IEA --
GO:0042133 neurotransmitter metabolic process TAS --
GO:0042135 neurotransmitter catabolic process IEA --
GO:0042420 dopamine catabolic process TAS 24252804
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MAOA: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MAOA Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MAOA Gene

(126) Drugs for MAOA Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Isocarboxazid Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 2
Moclobemide Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, Enzyme, inhibitor 7
Phenelzine Approved Pharma Target, Enzyme, antagonist, substrate, inhibitor 7
Selegiline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 27
Tranylcypromine Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor 25

(85) Additional Compounds for MAOA Gene - From: HMDB, Novoseek, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 2-(5-Methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethanamine
  • 2-(5-Methoxyindol-3-yl)ethylamine
  • 3-(2-Aminoethyl)-5-methoxyindole
  • 5-Mot
  • 5MOT
  • (+/-)-alpha-(aminomethyl)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-Benzenemethanol
  • (+/-)-Normetanephrine
  • 3-Methoxy-Noradrenaline
  • 3-O-Methyl-Noradrenaline
  • 4-(2-Amino-1-hydroxyethyl)-2-methoxyphenol
  • 1-Methyl-1H-imidazole-4-ethanamine
  • 1-Methyl-4-(2-aminoethyl)imidazole
  • 1-Methyl-4-(b-aminoethyl)imidazole
  • 1-Methyl-4-(beta-aminoethyl)imidazole
  • 1-Methyl-4-histamine
  • (1-Aminoethyl)benzene
  • (S)-(-)-a-Methyl-benzylamine
  • 1-Amino-1-phenylethane
  • 1-Fenylethylamin
  • 1-Phenyl-1-ethanamine
  • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde
  • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycolic aldehyde
  • a,3,4-Trihydroxy-Benzeneacetaldehyde
  • alpha,3,4-Trihydroxy-Benzeneacetaldehyde

(5) Tocris Compounds for MAOA Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
(R)-(-)-Deprenyl hydrochloride MAO-B inhibitor 14611-52-0
Bifemelane hydrochloride MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitor 62232-46-6
Lazabemide hydrochloride Selective MAO-B inhibitor 103878-83-7
Pirlindole mesylate MAO-A inhibitor 207572-66-5
Tetrindole mesylate MAO-A inhibitor 170964-68-8

(13) ApexBio Compounds for MAOA Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
2-BFI hydrochloride
BU 224 hydrochloride Antagonist of I2 Imidazoline receptor,potent and selective 205437-64-5
BU 226 hydrochloride Ligand at I2 imidazoline sites,high affinity and selectivity 1186195-56-1
BU 239 hydrochloride Ligand of imidazoline I2 receptor,potent and selective 1217041-98-9
Moclobemide (Ro 111163) Reversible inhibitor of MAO-A 71320-77-9
Paeonol MAO inhibitor;multi-functional phenolic compound 552-41-0
Pirlindole mesylate 207572-66-5
Procarbazine HCl Antineoplastic chemotherapy drug 366-70-1
RS 45041-190 hydrochloride 204274-74-8
Sennoside A Irritant laxative;mild MAO inhibitor 81-27-6
Tetrindole mesylate 170964-68-8
Tranylcypromine (2-PCPA) HCl Monoamine oxidase inhibitor 4548-34-9
Tranylcypromine hydrochloride 1986-47-6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MAOA: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for MAOA Gene

Unigene Clusters for MAOA Gene

Monoamine oxidase A:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MAOA Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MAOA Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MAOA Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for MAOA Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MAOA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Placenta (12.0), Nasal epithelium (9.2), Nasopharynx (7.5), and Adipocyte (6.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for MAOA Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MAOA Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MAOA Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MAOA Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MAOA Gene:

Tissue specificity: Heart, liver, duodenum, blood vessels and kidney.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for MAOA Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Liver(4.7)
  • Intestine(2.8)
  • Adrenal gland(2.7)
  • Heart(2.7)
  • Kidney(2.7)
  • Blood(2.5)
  • Lung(2.4)
  • Thyroid gland(2.4)
  • Muscle(2.3)
  • Pancreas(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for MAOA Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • nervous
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • head
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MAOA: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for MAOA Gene

Orthologs for MAOA Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for MAOA Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MAOA 34
  • 99 (a)
LOC743285 33
  • 98.8 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MAOA 33 34
  • 86.65 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Maoa 33 16 34
  • 85.19 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MAOA 33 34
  • 84.95 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Maoa 33
  • 84.57 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MAOA 34
  • 79 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MAOA 34
  • 73 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MAOA 34
  • 72 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MAOA 34
  • 72 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100495198 33
  • 68.62 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mao 34
  • 69 (a)
Species where no ortholog for MAOA was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for MAOA Gene

Gene Tree for MAOA (if available)
Gene Tree for MAOA (if available)

Paralogs for MAOA Gene

Paralogs for MAOA Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for MAOA Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MAOA: view

Variants for MAOA Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MAOA Gene

A polymorphism 1.2 kb upstream of the MAOA coding sequences consists of a 30-bp repeated sequence present in 3, 3.5, 4, or 5 copies. The polymorphism affect transcriptional activity of the MAOA gene promoter. Alleles with 3.5 or 4 copies of the repeat sequence are transcribed 2 to 10 times more efficiently than those with 3 or 5 copies of the repeat.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MAOA Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 0X pos Variation AA Info Type
rs201519600 uncertain-significance, Inborn genetic diseases, not provided 43,683,576(+) A/G 5_prime_UTR_variant, coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs587777457 pathogenic, Monoamine oxidase A deficiency 43,731,695(+) G/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs72554632 pathogenic, Monoamine oxidase A deficiency 43,731,784(+) C/T coding_sequence_variant, stop_gained
rs796065311 pathogenic, Monoamine oxidase A deficiency 43,731,345(+) /T coding_sequence_variant, frameshift
rs796065312 pathogenic, Monoamine oxidase A deficiency 43,683,572(+) C/T 5_prime_UTR_variant, coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MAOA Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv21483 CNV gain 19812545
nsv1078108 CNV duplication 25765185
nsv1150180 CNV duplication 26484159
nsv517873 CNV gain 19592680

Variation tolerance for MAOA Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 18.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.60; 12.97% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for MAOA Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

Disorders for MAOA Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(54) MalaCards diseases for MAOA Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
brunner syndrome
  • brnrs
antisocial personality disorder
  • asocial personality
social phobia
  • phobia social
conduct disorder
endogenous depression
  • clinical depression
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search MAOA in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Brunner syndrome (BRNRS) [MIM:300615]: A form of X-linked non-dysmorphic mild mental retardation. Male patients are affected by borderline mental retardation and exhibit abnormal behavior, including disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression. Obligate female carriers have normal intelligence and behavior. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:8211186}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for MAOA

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MAOA: view

No data available for Genatlas for MAOA Gene

Publications for MAOA Gene

  1. A non-additive interaction of a functional MAO-A VNTR and testosterone predicts antisocial behavior. (PMID: 17429405) Sjöberg RL … Goldman D (Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 2008) 3 22 25 44 58
  2. Association of VNTR polymorphisms in the MAOA promoter and DRD4 exon 3 with heroin dependence in male Chinese addicts. (PMID: 20218801) Chien CC … Lung FW (The world journal of biological psychiatry : the official journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry 2010) 3 22 44 58
  3. Meta-analysis of the association between the monoamine oxidase-A gene and mood disorders. (PMID: 20010318) Fan M … Zhang J (Psychiatric genetics 2010) 3 22 44 58
  4. Gene-gene interaction between COMT and MAOA potentially predicts the intelligence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder boys in China. (PMID: 19941049) Qian QJ … Faraone SV (Behavior genetics 2010) 3 22 44 58
  5. The interleukin-6, serotonin transporter, and monoamine oxidase A genes and endurance performance during the South African Ironman Triathlon. (PMID: 19935847) de Milander L … Collins M (Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme 2009) 3 22 44 58

Products for MAOA Gene

Sources for MAOA Gene

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