Aliases for MACROH2A1 Gene
External Ids for MACROH2A1 Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for MACROH2A1 Gene
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Nucleosomes consist of approximately 146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer composed of pairs of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4). The chromatin fiber is further compacted through the interaction of a linker histone, H1, with the DNA between the nucleosomes to form higher order chromatin structures. This gene encodes a replication-independent histone that is a member of the histone H2A family. It replaces conventional H2A histones in a subset of nucleosomes where it represses transcription and participates in stable X chromosome inactivation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2015]
GeneCards Summary for MACROH2A1 Gene
MACROH2A1 (MacroH2A.1 Histone) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MACROH2A1 include Liebenberg Syndrome and Medulloblastoma. Among its related pathways are Chromatin Regulation / Acetylation and ATF-2 transcription factor network. An important paralog of this gene is MACROH2A2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for MACROH2A1 Gene
Variant histone H2A which replaces conventional H2A in a subset of nucleosomes where it represses transcription (PubMed:12718888, PubMed:15621527, PubMed:16428466). Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling. Involved in stable X chromosome inactivation (PubMed:15897469). Inhibits the binding of transcription factors, including NF-kappa-B, and interferes with the activity of remodeling SWI/SNF complexes (PubMed:12718888, PubMed:16428466). Inhibits histone acetylation by EP300 and recruits class I HDACs, which induces a hypoacetylated state of chromatin (PubMed:16428466, PubMed:16107708).
[Isoform 1]: Binds ADP-ribose and O-acetyl-ADP-ribose, and may be involved in ADP-ribose-mediated chromatin modulation (PubMed:15902274). Increases the expression of genes involved in redox metabolism, including SOD3 (PubMed:23022728).
[Isoform 2]: Represses SOD3 gene expression.