Aliases for LTF Gene
External Ids for LTF Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LTF Gene
This gene is a member of the transferrin family of genes and its protein product is found in the secondary granules of neutrophils. The protein is a major iron-binding protein in milk and body secretions with an antimicrobial activity, making it an important component of the non-specific immune system. The protein demonstrates a broad spectrum of properties, including regulation of iron homeostasis, host defense against a broad range of microbial infections, anti-inflammatory activity, regulation of cellular growth and differentiation and protection against cancer development and metastasis. Antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic activity has been found for this protein and its peptides. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
GeneCards Summary for LTF Gene
LTF (Lactotransferrin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with LTF include Mastitis and Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca. Among its related pathways are Latent infection of Homo sapiens with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Defensins. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include serine-type endopeptidase activity and heparin binding. An important paralog of this gene is TF.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for LTF Gene
Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate.
[Lactotransferrin]: Major iron-binding and multifunctional protein found in exocrine fluids such as breast milk and mucosal secretions (PubMed:14573629, PubMed:1599934, PubMed:6802759, PubMed:3169987, PubMed:11179314, PubMed:12693969). Has antimicrobial activity, which depends on the extracellular cation concentration (PubMed:6802759). Antimicrobial properties include bacteriostasis, which is related to its ability to sequester free iron and thus inhibit microbial growth, as well as direct bactericidal properties leading to the release of lipopolysaccharides from the bacterial outer membrane (PubMed:14573629, PubMed:1599934, PubMed:6802759, PubMed:3169987, PubMed:11179314, PubMed:12693969). Can also prevent bacterial biofilm development in P.aeruginosa infection (PubMed:12037568). Has weak antifungal activity against C.albicans (PubMed:11083624). Has anabolic, differentiating and anti-apoptotic effects on osteoblasts and can also inhibit osteoclastogenesis, possibly playing a role in the regulation of bone growth (PubMed:15166119). Promotes binding of species C adenoviruses to epithelial cells, promoting adenovirus infection (PubMed:17079302). Can inhibit papillomavirus infections (PubMed:17481742). Stimulates the TLR4 signaling pathway leading to NF-kappa-B activation and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine production while also interfering with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated TLR4 signaling (PubMed:20345905). Inhibits neutrophil granulocyte migration to sites of apoptosis, when secreted by apoptotic cells (PubMed:19033648). Stimulates VEGFA-mediated endothelial cell migration and proliferation (PubMed:16842782). Binds heparin, chondroitin sulfate and possibly other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) (PubMed:9359845). Also binds specifically to pneumococcal surface protein A (pspA), the lipid A portion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lysozyme and DNA (PubMed:9359845).
Lactoferricin binds to the bacterial surface and is crucial for the bactericidal functions. Has some antiviral activity against papillomavirus infection (PubMed:17481742). N-terminal region shows strong antifungal activity against C.albicans (PubMed:11083624). Contains two BBXB heparin-binding consensus sequences that appear to form the predominate functional GAG-binding site.
[Kaliocin-1]: Has antimicrobial activity and is able to permeabilize different ions through liposomal membranes.
[Lactoferroxin-A]: Has opioid antagonist activity (PubMed:1369293). Shows preference for mu-receptor (PubMed:1369293).
[Lactoferroxin-B]: Has opioid antagonist activity (PubMed:1369293). Shows higher degrees of preference for kappa-receptors than for mu-receptors (PubMed:1369293).
[Lactoferroxin-C]: Has opioid antagonist activity (PubMed:1369293). Shows higher degrees of preference for kappa-receptors than for mu-receptors (PubMed:1369293).
The lactotransferrin transferrin-like domain 1 functions as a serine protease of the peptidase S60 family that cuts arginine rich regions (PubMed:12535064). This function contributes to the antimicrobial activity (PubMed:12535064). Shows a preferential cleavage at -Arg-Ser-Arg-Arg-|- and -Arg-Arg-Ser-Arg-|-, and of Z-Phe-Arg-|-aminomethylcoumarin sites (PubMed:12535064).
[Isoform DeltaLf]: transcription factor with antiproliferative properties and ability to induce cell cycle arrest (PubMed:15222485). Binds to the DeltaLf response element found in the SKP1, BAX, DCPS, and SELENOH promoters (PubMed:22320386).