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Aliases for LPA Gene

Aliases for LPA Gene

  • Lipoprotein(A) 2 3 5
  • Lipoprotein, Lp(A) 2 3
  • Apolipoprotein(A) 2 3
  • Apo(A) 3 4
  • Lp(A) 3 4
  • Antiangiogenic AK38 Protein 3
  • EC 3.4.21.- 4
  • AK38 3
  • APOA 3
  • LP 3

External Ids for LPA Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for LPA Gene

  • LP

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LPA Gene

  • GC06U990074
  • GC06M160826
  • GC06M160707
  • GC06M160861
  • GC06M160844
  • GC06M160872
  • GC06M160952
  • GC06M158427

Summaries for LPA Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LPA Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a serine proteinase that inhibits the activity of tissue-type plasminogen activator I. The encoded protein constitutes a substantial portion of lipoprotein(a) and is proteolytically cleaved, resulting in fragments that attach to atherosclerotic lesions and promote thrombogenesis. Elevated plasma levels of this protein are linked to atherosclerosis. Depending on the individual, the encoded protein contains 2-43 copies of kringle-type domains. The allele represented here contains 15 copies of the kringle-type repeats and corresponds to that found in the reference genome sequence. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

GeneCards Summary for LPA Gene

LPA (Lipoprotein(A)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with LPA include Hyperlipoproteinemia, Type Iii and Familial Hyperlipidemia. Among its related pathways are Lipoprotein metabolism and Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include serine-type endopeptidase activity and endopeptidase inhibitor activity. An important paralog of this gene is PLG.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LPA Gene

  • Apo(a) is the main constituent of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)). It has serine proteinase activity and is able of autoproteolysis. Inhibits tissue-type plasminogen activator 1. Lp(a) may be a ligand for megalin/Gp 330.

Gene Wiki entry for LPA Gene

Additional gene information for LPA Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LPA Gene

Genomics for LPA Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for LPA Gene

Promoters and enhancers for LPA Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH06J160664 Promoter 0.8 EPDnew 650.7 +2.1 2128 0.1 SP1 FOXA2 RXRA YY1 LPA GC06M160605 LPAL2
GH06J160761 Enhancer 0.3 FANTOM5 4.9 -95.8 -95765 0.3 SETDB1 LPA ENSG00000276960 ENSG00000274903
GH06J160278 Enhancer 0.2 FANTOM5 1.7 +387.3 387267 0.4 SLC22A2 LPA SLC22A3
GH06J160519 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 0.1 +146.1 146055 1.8 ATF1 ARNT SIN3A ZNF2 ZNF48 YY1 ZNF766 ARID2 ZNF143 ATF7 LPAL2 WTAP LOC729603 MAP3K4 LPA
GH06J160534 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 0.1 +132.1 132145 0.5 ELF3 CTCF ARID4B ZNF2 DNMT3B ZNF48 RAD21 SCRT2 SMC3 ZNF143 LPAL2 LPA
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around LPA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the LPA gene promoter:
  • CREB
  • c-Jun
  • deltaCREB
  • ATF-2
  • PPAR-gamma1

Genomic Locations for LPA Gene

Genomic Locations for LPA Gene
134,893 bases
Minus strand
134,893 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for LPA Gene

Genes around LPA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
LPA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for LPA Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LPA Gene

Proteins for LPA Gene

  • Protein details for LPA Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5VTD7
    • Q9UD88

    Protein attributes for LPA Gene

    4548 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    501319 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Disulfide-linked to apo-B100. Binds to fibronectin and decorin.
    • Apo(a) is known to be proteolytically cleaved, leading to the formation of the so-called mini-Lp(a). Apo(a) fragments accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions, where they may promote thrombogenesis. O-glycosylation may limit the extent of proteolytic fragmentation. Homology with plasminogen kringles IV and V is thought to underlie the atherogenicity of the protein, because the fragments are competing with plasminogen for fibrin(ogen) binding.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for LPA Gene

neXtProt entry for LPA Gene

Post-translational modifications for LPA Gene

  • N- and O-glycosylated. The N-glycans are complex biantennary structures present in either a mono- or disialylated state. The O-glycans are mostly (80%) represented by the monosialylated core type I structure, NeuNAcalpha2-3Galbeta1-3GalNAc, with smaller amounts of disialylated and non-sialylated O-glycans also detected.
  • Glycosylation at isoforms=4197, posLast=40834083, isoforms=3969, posLast=38893889, posLast=38553855, posLast=37493749, isoforms=3635, posLast=35213521, posLast=34073407, isoforms=3293, isoforms=3179, posLast=30653065, isoforms=2951, posLast=28372837, isoforms=2723, isoforms=2609, posLast=24952495, posLast=23812381, posLast=22672267, posLast=21532153, posLast=20392039, posLast=19251925, isoforms=1811, posLast=16971697, isoforms=1583, posLast=14691469, isoforms=1355, posLast=12411241, isoforms=1127, isoforms=1013, posLast=899899, posLast=785785, posLast=671671, isoforms=557, isoforms=443, isoforms=329, isoforms=215, isoforms=101, and posLast=6161
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect
    • APOA_HUMAN (56)

Other Protein References for LPA Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for LPA Gene

Domains & Families for LPA Gene

Gene Families for LPA Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Candidate cardiovascular disease genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family. Plasminogen subfamily.
  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family. Plasminogen subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LPA: view

Function for LPA Gene

Molecular function for LPA Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Apo(a) is the main constituent of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)). It has serine proteinase activity and is able of autoproteolysis. Inhibits tissue-type plasminogen activator 1. Lp(a) may be a ligand for megalin/Gp 330.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
lipoprotein,Lp(a),tightly linked (50k6) and highly homologous to PLG,susceptibility gene for IDDM8

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for LPA Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for LPA Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LPA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001968 fibronectin binding IPI 2531657
GO:0004252 serine-type endopeptidase activity IDA 2531657
GO:0004866 endopeptidase inhibitor activity TAS 8047165
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 2531657
GO:0008201 heparin binding NAS 2531657
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LPA: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LPA: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for LPA

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for LPA Gene

Localization for LPA Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LPA gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 2
peroxisome 2
nucleus 2
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1
endosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LPA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0034358 plasma lipoprotein particle IDA 2531657
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LPA: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for LPA Gene

Pathways & Interactions for LPA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LPA: view

Pathways by source for LPA Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LPA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006508 proteolysis IEA --
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process NAS 8047165
GO:0006869 lipid transport IEA --
GO:0008015 blood circulation TAS 8047165
GO:0010951 negative regulation of endopeptidase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LPA: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for LPA Gene

Drugs & Compounds for LPA Gene

(57) Drugs for LPA Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ClinicalTrials, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Niacin Approved, Investigational Nutra Unknown, Agonist, Full agonist 946,946
Nicotinamide Approved, Investigational Nutra 942,946
Aminocaproic Acid Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, other 28
Folic Acid Approved, Vet_approved Nutra 4610
Corticosterone Experimental Pharma 11

(27) Additional Compounds for LPA Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LPA: view

Transcripts for LPA Gene

mRNA/cDNA for LPA Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(2) Additional mRNA sequences :
(4) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(3) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for LPA Gene

Lipoprotein, Lp(a):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for LPA

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LPA Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for LPA Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for LPA Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for LPA Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for LPA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x47.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for LPA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Synovial fluid (24.4) and Serum (21.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for LPA Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for LPA Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of LPA Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LPA Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for LPA Gene

  • Blood(4.7)
  • Liver(4.7)
  • Intestine(2.5)
  • Kidney(2.2)
  • Heart(2.1)
  • Gall bladder(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for LPA Gene

Germ Layers:
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • immune
Head and neck:
  • ear
  • heart
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with LPA: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LPA Gene

Orthologs for LPA Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for LPA Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LPA 34 33
  • 97.27 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 54 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 53 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 34
  • 50 (a)
-- 34
  • 42 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 51 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii plg 34
  • 47 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG13744 35
  • 33 (a)
Tequila 34
  • 6 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea svh-1 34
  • 15 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.4525 34
  • 18 (a)
Species where no ortholog for LPA was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • cow (Bos Taurus)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • mouse (Mus musculus)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for LPA Gene

Gene Tree for LPA (if available)
Gene Tree for LPA (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for LPA: view image

Paralogs for LPA Gene

Paralogs for LPA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with LPA: view

Variants for LPA Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LPA Gene

The reference genome sequence encodes a variant that contains 16 Kringle domains and that lack residues 533 to 3040. Depending on the individual, the encoded protein contains 2-43 copies of kringle-type domains. The allele represented here contains 38 copies of the kringle-type repeats.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LPA Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs10455872 drug-response, HMG CoA reductase inhibitors response - Efficacy 160,589,086(-) A/G intron_variant
rs121912503 pathogenic, Lipoprotein(a) deficiency, congenital 160,650,438(-) G/A/C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, stop_gained, synonymous_variant
rs41272114 benign, not specified 160,585,045(-) C/A/T splice_donor_variant
rs1000010760 -- 160,561,291(-) C/A intron_variant
rs1000015125 -- 160,626,622(-) C/G intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LPA Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv10988n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv127n17 CNV loss 16327808
dgv3427n106 CNV duplication 24896259
dgv3693e59 CNV duplication 20981092
dgv3694e59 CNV duplication 20981092
dgv3695e59 CNV duplication 20981092
dgv6166n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv6167n100 CNV loss 25217958
esv2530911 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2663797 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2733055 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2733056 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2750777 CNV loss 17666407
esv2759484 CNV gain+loss 17122850
esv2763605 CNV loss 21179565
esv28656 CNV gain+loss 19812545
esv33502 CNV loss 17666407
esv35098 CNV gain 17911159
esv3540772 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3571493 CNV loss 25503493
esv3576239 CNV gain 25503493
esv3576240 CNV gain 25503493
esv3576241 CNV gain 25503493
esv3584856 CNV loss 24956385
esv3611436 CNV gain 21293372
esv3611440 CNV loss 21293372
esv3611441 CNV loss 21293372
esv3890975 CNV loss 25118596
esv5050 OTHER sequence alteration 18987735
esv6519 CNV loss 19470904
nsv1022275 CNV gain+loss 25217958
nsv1026543 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1076605 CNV duplication 25765185
nsv1078005 CNV duplication 25765185
nsv1115730 CNV duplication 24896259
nsv1124946 CNV duplication 24896259
nsv1129769 CNV tandem duplication 24896259
nsv1132630 CNV duplication 24896259
nsv1146486 CNV duplication 26484159
nsv1146862 CNV deletion 26484159
nsv1151780 CNV duplication 26484159
nsv290 CNV insertion 15895083
nsv348956 CNV deletion 16902084
nsv428155 CNV gain 18775914
nsv471501 CNV gain 19718026
nsv509160 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv515029 CNV gain 21397061
nsv525990 CNV loss 19592680
nsv5567 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv5568 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv5569 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv5570 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv604997 CNV loss 21841781
nsv604998 CNV loss 21841781
nsv605005 CNV gain 21841781
nsv7986 CNV gain 18304495
nsv818463 CNV gain 17921354
nsv823905 CNV gain 20364138
nsv830852 CNV loss 17160897
nsv949881 CNV duplication 24416366
nsv969464 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv970187 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv981203 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for LPA Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 99.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 12.42; 94.27% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for LPA Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

Disorders for LPA Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(33) MalaCards diseases for LPA Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hyperlipoproteinemia, type iii
  • apolipoprotein e, deficiency or defect of
familial hyperlipidemia
  • familial hyperlipoproteinemia
lipoprotein glomerulopathy
  • lpg
aortic atherosclerosis
  • atherosclerosis of aorta
peripheral vascular disease
  • arterial occlusive disease
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search LPA in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Genatlas disease for LPA Gene

coronary atherosclerosis,premature,with high Lpa

Additional Disease Information for LPA

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with LPA: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LPA Gene

Publications for LPA Gene

  1. The I4399M variant of apolipoprotein(a) is associated with increased oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-100 particles. (PMID: 19880117) Arai K … Tsimikas S (Atherosclerosis 2010) 3 22 44 58
  2. Decrease of Lp(a) during weight reduction in obese children is modified by the apo(a) kringle-IV copy number variation. (PMID: 19636317) Brandstätter A … Kronenberg F (International journal of obesity (2005) 2009) 3 22 44 58
  3. Lp(a) and apoE polymorphisms in young South African Indians with myocardial infarction. (PMID: 15258620) Ranjith N … Naidoo DP (Cardiovascular journal of South Africa : official journal for Southern Africa Cardiac Society [and] South African Society of Cardiac Practitioners 2004) 3 22 44 58
  4. cDNA sequence of human apolipoprotein(a) is homologous to plasminogen. (PMID: 3670400) McLean JW … Lawn RM (Nature 1987) 2 3 4 58
  5. Genome-wide association study of genetic determinants of LDL-c response to atorvastatin therapy: importance of Lp(a). (PMID: 22368281) Deshmukh HA … CARDS, ASCOT, and PROSPER Investigators (Journal of lipid research 2012) 3 44 58

Products for LPA Gene

Sources for LPA Gene

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