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Aliases for LOXL4 Gene

Aliases for LOXL4 Gene

  • Lysyl Oxidase Like 4 2 3 5
  • Lysyl Oxidase-Related Protein C 3 4
  • Lysyl Oxidase-Like Protein 4 3 4
  • LOXC 3 4
  • Lysyl Oxidase-Like 4 Pseudogene 3
  • Lysyl Oxidase Homolog 4 3
  • Lysyl Oxidase Related C 3
  • Lysyl Oxidase-Like 4 2
  • EC 1.4.3.- 4

External Ids for LOXL4 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LOXL4 Gene

  • GC10M098900
  • GC10M099241
  • GC10M100138
  • GC10M099672
  • GC10M099997
  • GC10M093632

Summaries for LOXL4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LOXL4 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the lysyl oxidase gene family. The prototypic member of the family is essential to the biogenesis of connective tissue, encoding an extracellular copper-dependent amine oxidase that catalyses the first step in the formation of crosslinks in collagens and elastin. A highly conserved amino acid sequence at the C-terminus end appears to be sufficient for amine oxidase activity, suggesting that each family member may retain this function. The N-terminus is poorly conserved and may impart additional roles in developmental regulation, senescence, tumor suppression, cell growth control, and chemotaxis to each member of the family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for LOXL4 Gene

LOXL4 (Lysyl Oxidase Like 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with LOXL4 include Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head And Neck. Among its related pathways are Simplified Interaction Map Between LOXL4 and Oxidative Stress Pathway and Collagen chain trimerization. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include copper ion binding and oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-NH2 group of donors, oxygen as acceptor. An important paralog of this gene is LOXL3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LOXL4 Gene

  • May modulate the formation of a collagenous extracellular matrix.

Gene Wiki entry for LOXL4 Gene

Additional gene information for LOXL4 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LOXL4 Gene

Genomics for LOXL4 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for LOXL4 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for LOXL4 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH10J098267 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 673.2 -0.7 -679 3.3 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARID4B DMAP1 ZNF48 ETS1 ATF7 FOS NFKBIZ RXRA LOXL4 GC10P098268 ENSG00000230928 GC10M098326
GH10J098266 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl 674.2 +1.8 1849 0.4 ZFHX2 PKNOX1 USF1 POLR2A ZBTB48 ZNF398 EGR2 LOXL4 ENSG00000230928
GH10J098132 Promoter/Enhancer 1.5 Ensembl ENCODE 29 +133.8 133787 3.2 HDGF PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 IRF4 YY1 POLR2B R3HCC1L HPS1 LOXL4 EXOSC1 MMS19 MARVELD1 ENSG00000278752
GH10J097331 Promoter/Enhancer 1.8 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 20.2 +934.6 934600 4.9 HDGF CLOCK FOXA2 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B LOC105378448 FRAT2 EXOSC1 NPM1P26 R3HCC1L RPL13AP5 ENSG00000230928 LOXL4 LCOR TM9SF3
GH10J097424 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.7 +841.3 841278 4.4 HDGF PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 POLR2B ZNF207 ZNF143 SP3 PGAM1 LOC644215 RRP12 GC10M097416 TM9SF3 MARVELD1 RPL13AP5 EXOSC1 LOXL4 GC10P097430
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around LOXL4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the LOXL4 gene promoter:
  • STAT3
  • GR-alpha
  • GR
  • Tal-1beta
  • ITF-2
  • NF-kappaB
  • RelA
  • Evi-1
  • NF-AT
  • NF-AT1

Genomic Locations for LOXL4 Gene

Genomic Locations for LOXL4 Gene
20,565 bases
Minus strand
20,565 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for LOXL4 Gene

Genes around LOXL4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
LOXL4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for LOXL4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LOXL4 Gene

Proteins for LOXL4 Gene

  • Protein details for LOXL4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Lysyl oxidase homolog 4
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5W0B3
    • Q96DY1
    • Q96PC0
    • Q9H6T5

    Protein attributes for LOXL4 Gene

    756 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    84483 Da
    Name=Cu cation; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:23378;
    Name=lysine tyrosylquinone residue; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:20489;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=AAH07522.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for LOXL4 Gene

Post-translational modifications for LOXL4 Gene

  • The lysine tyrosylquinone cross-link (LTQ) is generated by condensation of the epsilon-amino group of a lysine with a topaquinone produced by oxidation of tyrosine.
  • Glycosylation at posLast=629629 and posLast=198198
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for LOXL4 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for LOXL4 Gene

Domains & Families for LOXL4 Gene

Gene Families for LOXL4 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for LOXL4 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the lysyl oxidase family.
  • Belongs to the lysyl oxidase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LOXL4: view

Function for LOXL4 Gene

Molecular function for LOXL4 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May modulate the formation of a collagenous extracellular matrix.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for LOXL4 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for LOXL4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LOXL4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004720 protein-lysine 6-oxidase activity IBA --
GO:0005044 scavenger receptor activity IEA --
GO:0005507 copper ion binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16189514
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LOXL4: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LOXL4: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for LOXL4

CRISPR Products

miRNA for LOXL4 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target LOXL4

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for LOXL4

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for LOXL4 Gene

Localization for LOXL4 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LOXL4 Gene

Secreted, extracellular space.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LOXL4 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 1
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LOXL4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA,IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0043235 receptor complex IDA 23382219
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 19199708
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LOXL4: view

Pathways & Interactions for LOXL4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LOXL4: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LOXL4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002040 sprouting angiogenesis IBA --
GO:0006898 receptor-mediated endocytosis IEA --
GO:0018057 peptidyl-lysine oxidation IBA --
GO:0030199 collagen fibril organization IBA --
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LOXL4: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for LOXL4 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for LOXL4 Gene

(2) Drugs for LOXL4 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Copper Approved, Investigational Pharma 202

(1) Additional Compounds for LOXL4 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LOXL4: view

Transcripts for LOXL4 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for LOXL4 Gene

Unigene Clusters for LOXL4 Gene

Lysyl oxidase-like 4:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for LOXL4

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LOXL4 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18
SP1: -
SP2: - - - -
SP4: - - - -
SP5: -

Relevant External Links for LOXL4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for LOXL4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for LOXL4 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for LOXL4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Islet of Langerhans (36.2) and Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (18.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for LOXL4 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for LOXL4 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of LOXL4 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LOXL4 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LOXL4 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in many tissues, the highest levels among the tissues studied being in the skeletal muscle, testis and pancreas. Expressed in cartilage.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for LOXL4 Gene

  • Eye(4.2)
  • Lung(2.4)
  • Skin(2.4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with LOXL4: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for LOXL4 Gene

Orthologs for LOXL4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for LOXL4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LOXL4 34 33
  • 99.69 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOXL4 34 33
  • 88.83 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LOXL4 34 33
  • 88.53 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Loxl4 33
  • 85.54 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Loxl4 16 34 33
  • 85.36 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia LOXL4 34
  • 80 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia LOXL4 34
  • 63 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LOXL4 34 33
  • 71.99 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia LOXL4 34
  • 66 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia loxl4 33
  • 65.42 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii loxl4 34 33
  • 62.54 (n)
LOXL4 (2 of 2) 34
  • 59 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta lox 35
  • 42 (a)
lox2 35
  • 40 (a)
Species where no ortholog for LOXL4 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for LOXL4 Gene

Gene Tree for LOXL4 (if available)
Gene Tree for LOXL4 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for LOXL4: view image

Paralogs for LOXL4 Gene

Paralogs for LOXL4 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for LOXL4 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • LOXL4_HUMAN Pseudogenes for LOXL4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with LOXL4: view

Variants for LOXL4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LOXL4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 10 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000041988 -- 98,263,654(-) T/C intron_variant
rs1000136499 -- 98,263,921(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1000304674 -- 98,252,727(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1000306616 -- 98,260,436(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1000351716 -- 98,252,948(-) T/C intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LOXL4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2676146 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2739962 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3261051 CNV deletion 24192839
esv3546734 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3624332 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1069959 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1152838 CNV deletion 26484159
nsv831954 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for LOXL4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 94.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 13.15; 95.15% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for LOXL4 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LOXL4 Gene

Disorders for LOXL4 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for LOXL4 Gene - From: DISEASES and Novoseek

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck
  • hnscc
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search LOXL4 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for LOXL4

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with LOXL4: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for LOXL4 Gene

Publications for LOXL4 Gene

  1. Systematic screening of lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL) family genes demonstrates that LOXL2 is a susceptibility gene to intracranial aneurysms. (PMID: 17287949) Akagawa H … Inoue I (Human genetics 2007) 3 22 44 58
  2. A novel human lysyl oxidase-like gene (LOXL4) on chromosome 10q24 has an altered scavenger receptor cysteine rich domain. (PMID: 11691588) Asuncion L … Csiszar K (Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 2001) 3 4 22 58
  3. Cloning and characterization of a fifth human lysyl oxidase isoenzyme: the third member of the lysyl oxidase-related subfamily with four scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains. (PMID: 11691589) Mäki JM … Kivirikko KI (Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 2001) 3 4 22 58
  4. Molecular cloning and biological activity of a novel lysyl oxidase-related gene expressed in cartilage. (PMID: 11292829) Ito H … Nakamura T (The Journal of biological chemistry 2001) 2 3 4 58
  5. Lysyl oxidase-like 4 is alternatively spliced in an anatomic site-specific manner in tumors involving the serosal cavities. (PMID: 19015874) Sebban S … Reich R (Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology 2009) 3 22 58

Products for LOXL4 Gene

Sources for LOXL4 Gene

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