Aliases for LOXL2 Gene
External Ids for LOXL2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LOXL2 Gene
This gene encodes a member of the lysyl oxidase gene family. The prototypic member of the family is essential to the biogenesis of connective tissue, encoding an extracellular copper-dependent amine oxidase that catalyses the first step in the formation of crosslinks in collagens and elastin. A highly conserved amino acid sequence at the C-terminus end appears to be sufficient for amine oxidase activity, suggesting that each family member may retain this function. The N-terminus is poorly conserved and may impart additional roles in developmental regulation, senescence, tumor suppression, cell growth control, and chemotaxis to each member of the family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for LOXL2 Gene
LOXL2 (Lysyl Oxidase Like 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with LOXL2 include Hyperostosis Cranialis Interna and Mid-Dermal Elastolysis. Among its related pathways are Degradation of the extracellular matrix and Collagen chain trimerization. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include chromatin binding and electron transfer activity. An important paralog of this gene is LOXL3.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for LOXL2 Gene
Mediates the post-translational oxidative deamination of lysine residues on target proteins leading to the formation of deaminated lysine (allysine) (PubMed:27735137). Acts as a transcription corepressor and specifically mediates deamination of trimethylated 'Lys-4' of histone H3 (H3K4me3), a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation (PubMed:27735137). Shows no activity against histone H3 when it is trimethylated on 'Lys-9' (H3K9me3) or 'Lys-27' (H3K27me3) or when 'Lys-4' is monomethylated (H3K4me1) or dimethylated (H3K4me2) (PubMed:27735137). Also mediates deamination of methylated TAF10, a member of the transcription factor IID (TFIID) complex, which induces release of TAF10 from promoters, leading to inhibition of TFIID-dependent transcription (PubMed:25959397). LOXL2-mediated deamination of TAF10 results in transcriptional repression of genes required for embryonic stem cell pluripotency including POU5F1/OCT4, NANOG, KLF4 and SOX2 (By similarity). Involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) via interaction with SNAI1 and participates in repression of E-cadherin CDH1, probably by mediating deamination of histone H3 (PubMed:16096638, PubMed:27735137, PubMed:24414204). During EMT, involved with SNAI1 in negatively regulating pericentromeric heterochromatin transcription (PubMed:24239292). SNAI1 recruits LOXL2 to pericentromeric regions to oxidize histone H3 and repress transcription which leads to release of heterochromatin component CBX5/HP1A, enabling chromatin reorganization and acquisition of mesenchymal traits (PubMed:24239292). Interacts with the endoplasmic reticulum protein HSPA5 which activates the IRE1-XBP1 pathway of the unfolded protein response, leading to expression of several transcription factors involved in EMT and subsequent EMT induction (PubMed:28332555). Involved in E-cadherin repression following hypoxia, a hallmark of EMT believed to amplify tumor aggressiveness, suggesting that it may play a role in tumor progression (PubMed:20026874). When secreted into the extracellular matrix, promotes cross-linking of extracellular matrix proteins by mediating oxidative deamination of peptidyl lysine residues in precursors to fibrous collagen and elastin (PubMed:20306300). Acts as a regulator of sprouting angiogenesis, probably via collagen IV scaffolding (PubMed:21835952). Acts as a regulator of chondrocyte differentiation, probably by regulating expression of factors that control chondrocyte differentiation (By similarity).