Aliases for LOXL2 Gene
External Ids for LOXL2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LOXL2 Gene
This gene encodes a member of the lysyl oxidase gene family. The prototypic member of the family is essential to the biogenesis of connective tissue, encoding an extracellular copper-dependent amine oxidase that catalyses the first step in the formation of crosslinks in collagens and elastin. A highly conserved amino acid sequence at the C-terminus end appears to be sufficient for amine oxidase activity, suggesting that each family member may retain this function. The N-terminus is poorly conserved and may impart additional roles in developmental regulation, senescence, tumor suppression, cell growth control, and chemotaxis to each member of the family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for LOXL2 Gene
LOXL2 (Lysyl Oxidase Like 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with LOXL2 include Hyperostosis Cranialis Interna and Mid-Dermal Elastolysis. Among its related pathways are Collagen chain trimerization and SMAD2/3 MH2 Domain Mutants in Cancer. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include chromatin binding and electron transfer activity. An important paralog of this gene is LOXL3.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LOXL2 Gene
Mediates the post-translational oxidative deamination of lysine residues on target proteins leading to the formation of deaminated lysine (allysine) (PubMed:27735137). Acts as a transcription corepressor and specifically mediates deamination of trimethylated 'Lys-4' of histone H3 (H3K4me3), a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation (PubMed:27735137). Shows no activity against histone H3 when it is trimethylated on 'Lys-9' (H3K9me3) or 'Lys-27' (H3K27me3) or when 'Lys-4' is monomethylated (H3K4me1) or dimethylated (H3K4me2) (PubMed:27735137). Also mediates deamination of methylated TAF10, a member of the transcription factor IID (TFIID) complex, which induces release of TAF10 from promoters, leading to inhibition of TFIID-dependent transcription (PubMed:25959397). LOXL2-mediated deamination of TAF10 results in transcriptional repression of genes required for embryonic stem cell pluripotency including POU5F1/OCT4, NANOG, KLF4 and SOX2 (By similarity). Involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) via interaction with SNAI1 and participates in repression of E-cadherin CDH1, probably by mediating deamination of histone H3 (PubMed:16096638, PubMed:27735137, PubMed:24414204). During EMT, involved with SNAI1 in negatively regulating pericentromeric heterochromatin transcription (PubMed:24239292). SNAI1 recruits LOXL2 to pericentromeric regions to oxidize histone H3 and repress transcription which leads to release of heterochromatin component CBX5/HP1A, enabling chromatin reorganization and acquisition of mesenchymal traits (PubMed:24239292). Interacts with the endoplasmic reticulum protein HSPA5 which activates the IRE1-XBP1 pathway of the unfolded protein response, leading to expression of several transcription factors involved in EMT and subsequent EMT induction (PubMed:28332555). Involved in E-cadherin repression following hypoxia, a hallmark of EMT believed to amplify tumor aggressiveness, suggesting that it may play a role in tumor progression (PubMed:20026874). When secreted into the extracellular matrix, promotes cross-linking of extracellular matrix proteins by mediating oxidative deamination of peptidyl lysine residues in precursors to fibrous collagen and elastin (PubMed:20306300). Acts as a regulator of sprouting angiogenesis, probably via collagen IV scaffolding (PubMed:21835952). Acts as a regulator of chondrocyte differentiation, probably by regulating expression of factors that control chondrocyte differentiation (By similarity).