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Aliases for LNPEP Gene

Aliases for LNPEP Gene

  • Leucyl And Cystinyl Aminopeptidase 2 3 5
  • Placental Leucine Aminopeptidase 2 3 4
  • Cystinyl Aminopeptidase 2 3 4
  • Insulin-Regulated Membrane Aminopeptidase 3 4
  • Insulin-Responsive Aminopeptidase 3 4
  • Oxytocinase 3 4
  • EC 4 56
  • Otase 3 4
  • P-LAP 3 4
  • IRAP 3 4
  • Insulin-Regulated Aminopeptidase 3
  • Leucyl/Cystinyl Aminopeptidase 2
  • Leucyl-Cystinyl Aminopeptidase 3
  • Angiotensin IV Receptor 3
  • AT (4) Receptor 3
  • Vasopressinase 3
  • EC 3.4.11 56
  • PLAP 3
  • CAP 3

External Ids for LNPEP Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LNPEP Gene

  • GC05P095502
  • GC05P096736
  • GC05P096300
  • GC05P096346
  • GC05P096347
  • GC05P096297
  • GC05P096272
  • GC05P091461

Summaries for LNPEP Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LNPEP Gene

  • This gene encodes a zinc-dependent aminopeptidase that cleaves vasopressin, oxytocin, lys-bradykinin, met-enkephalin, dynorphin A and other peptide hormones. The protein can be secreted in maternal serum, reside in intracellular vesicles with the insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4, or form a type II integral membrane glycoprotein. The protein catalyzes the final step in the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin IV (AT4) and is also a receptor for AT4. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for LNPEP Gene

LNPEP (Leucyl And Cystinyl Aminopeptidase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with LNPEP include Gestational Diabetes Insipidus and Trophoblastic Neoplasm. Among its related pathways are Innate Immune System and Class I MHC mediated antigen processing and presentation. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include metallopeptidase activity and aminopeptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ERAP1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LNPEP Gene

  • Release of an N-terminal amino acid, cleaves before cysteine, leucine as well as other amino acids. Degrades peptide hormones such as oxytocin, vasopressin and angiotensin III, and plays a role in maintaining homeostasis during pregnancy. May be involved in the inactivation of neuronal peptides in the brain. Cleaves Met-enkephalin and dynorphin. Binds angiotensin IV and may be the angiotensin IV receptor in the brain.

Tocris Summary for LNPEP Gene

Gene Wiki entry for LNPEP Gene

Additional gene information for LNPEP Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LNPEP Gene

Genomics for LNPEP Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for LNPEP Gene

Promoters and enhancers for LNPEP Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH05I096931 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 573.2 -0.8 -777 6.6 CLOCK MLX ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 LNPEP ERAP1 LOC101929747 ENSG00000247121 ERAP2 RIOK2 ENSG00000248734
GH05I096956 Promoter/Enhancer 1.6 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 563.1 +22.7 22671 3.3 FOXA2 EBF1 BMI1 BATF IRF4 RELA GATA3 ETV6 BCLAF1 IKZF2 LNPEP ERAP2 ENSG00000247121 LIX1 ENSG00000200884 GC05M096963 RPS20P16
GH05I096699 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.9 -230.4 -230383 11.6 MLX ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 POLR2B ZNF766 ZNF548 CAST RIOK2 ERAP1 ENSG00000248734 LNPEP ENSG00000249180 LOC101929710
GH05I096875 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12 -58.6 -58635 2.9 HDGF PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A YBX1 ZNF518A ZNF592 KAT8 GLIS1 HMBOX1 ERAP2 ERAP1 ENSG00000248734 ENSG00000247121 LNPEP RPS20P16 LIX1 ENSG00000272109
GH05I096884 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 17.5 -49.6 -49631 2.3 HDGF HDAC1 PKNOX1 ATF1 SMAD1 RB1 BMI1 KLF5 IRF4 EGR1 ERAP2 LNPEP ENSG00000247121 RPS20P16 ERAP1 ENSG00000248734 LIX1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around LNPEP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the LNPEP gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for LNPEP Gene

Genomic Locations for LNPEP Gene
102,122 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for LNPEP Gene

Genes around LNPEP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
LNPEP Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for LNPEP Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LNPEP Gene

Proteins for LNPEP Gene

  • Protein details for LNPEP Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Leucyl-cystinyl aminopeptidase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O00769
    • Q15145
    • Q59H76
    • Q9TNQ2
    • Q9TNQ3
    • Q9UIQ7

    Protein attributes for LNPEP Gene

    1025 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    117349 Da
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Binds tankyrases 1 and 2.
    • Sequence=BAA09436.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=BAD92120.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=405; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for LNPEP Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for LNPEP Gene


neXtProt entry for LNPEP Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for LNPEP Gene


Post-translational modifications for LNPEP Gene

  • N-glycosylated.
  • The pregnancy serum form is derived from the membrane-bound form by proteolytic processing.
  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=2, 375
  • Glycosylation at posLast=145145, isoforms=2, 3184, posLast=215215, posLast=256256, isoforms=2, 3266, posLast=368368, isoforms=2, 3374, isoforms=2, 3448, isoforms=2, 3525, isoforms=2, 3578, isoforms=2, 3598, posLast=664664, posLast=682682, posLast=760760, posLast=834834, isoforms=2, 3850, and posLast=989989
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for LNPEP Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for LNPEP Gene

Gene Families for LNPEP Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for LNPEP Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the peptidase M1 family.
  • Belongs to the peptidase M1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LNPEP: view

Function for LNPEP Gene

Molecular function for LNPEP Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Release of an N-terminal amino acid, Cys- -Xaa-, in which the half-cystine residue is involved in a disulfide loop, notably in oxytocin or vasopressin. Hydrolysis rates on a range of aminoacyl arylamides exceed that for the cystinyl derivative, however.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Release of an N-terminal amino acid, cleaves before cysteine, leucine as well as other amino acids. Degrades peptide hormones such as oxytocin, vasopressin and angiotensin III, and plays a role in maintaining homeostasis during pregnancy. May be involved in the inactivation of neuronal peptides in the brain. Cleaves Met-enkephalin and dynorphin. Binds angiotensin IV and may be the angiotensin IV receptor in the brain.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for LNPEP Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for LNPEP Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LNPEP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004177 aminopeptidase activity TAS 15691326
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0008233 peptidase activity IEA --
GO:0008237 metallopeptidase activity TAS 9177475
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding IBA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LNPEP: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LNPEP: view

Animal Models for LNPEP Gene

MGI Knock Outs for LNPEP:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for LNPEP Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target LNPEP

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for LNPEP Gene

Localization for LNPEP Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LNPEP Gene

Cell membrane; Single-pass type II membrane protein. Note=In brain only the membrane-bound form is found. The protein resides in intracellular vesicles together with GLUT4 and can then translocate to the cell surface in response to insulin and/or oxytocin. Localization may be determined by dileucine internalization motifs, and/or by interaction with tankyrases.
Leucyl-cystinyl aminopeptidase, pregnancy serum form: Secreted. Note=During pregnancy serum levels are low in the first trimester, rise progressively during the second and third trimester and decrease rapidly after parturition.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LNPEP gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
cytosol 5
lysosome 5
endosome 5
endoplasmic reticulum 2
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1
nucleus 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LNPEP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005622 intracellular IDA 15691326
GO:0005765 lysosomal membrane HDA,IDA 17897319
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS 9177475
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LNPEP: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for LNPEP Gene

Pathways & Interactions for LNPEP Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LNPEP: view

Pathways by source for LNPEP Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LNPEP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000209 protein polyubiquitination TAS --
GO:0002480 antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-independent TAS --
GO:0006508 proteolysis IEA,TAS --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IBA --
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling TAS 8550619
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LNPEP: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for LNPEP Gene

Drugs & Compounds for LNPEP Gene

(25) Drugs for LNPEP Gene - From: ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Zinc Approved, Investigational Pharma 2430
Oxytocin Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist Involved in uterine contraction and lactation 474
Vasopressin Approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0
bestatin Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor Aminopeptidase inhibitor 0
Tosedostat (CHR2797) Pharma Aminopeptidase inhibitor 0

(7) Additional Compounds for LNPEP Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(2) ApexBio Compounds for LNPEP Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Bestatin Aminopeptidase inhibitor 58970-76-6
Tosedostat (CHR2797) Aminopeptidase inhibitor 238750-77-1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LNPEP: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for LNPEP Gene

Unigene Clusters for LNPEP Gene

Leucyl/cystinyl aminopeptidase:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LNPEP Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for LNPEP Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for LNPEP Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for LNPEP Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for LNPEP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (15.3) and Nasal epithelium (9.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for LNPEP Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for LNPEP Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of LNPEP Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LNPEP Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LNPEP Gene:

Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in placenta, heart, kidney and small intestine. Detected at lower levels in neuronal cells in the brain, in skeletal muscle, spleen, liver, testes and colon.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for LNPEP Gene

  • Nervous system(4.4)
  • Liver(4.2)
  • Muscle(2.5)
  • Blood(2.2)
  • Kidney(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with LNPEP: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for LNPEP Gene

Orthologs for LNPEP Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for LNPEP Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LNPEP 33 34
  • 99.64 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LNPEP 33 34
  • 90.55 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LNPEP 33 34
  • 87.45 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Lnpep 33 16 34
  • 87.19 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia LNPEP 34
  • 79 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia LNPEP 34
  • 69 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LNPEP 33 34
  • 70.18 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia LNPEP 34
  • 63 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia lnpep 33
  • 62.59 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC69084 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii lnpep 33 34
  • 58.87 (n)
wufb73h12 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG11951 35
  • 39 (a)
CG8773 35
  • 35 (a)
sda 35
  • 30 (a)
CG3502 35
  • 29 (a)
BG:DS00365.1 35
  • 27 (a)
CG2111 35
  • 26 (a)
CG5849 35
  • 26 (a)
CG6071 35
  • 22 (a)
CG4467 34
  • 22 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y67D8C.9 35
  • 34 (a)
R03G8.4 35
  • 29 (a)
R03G8.6 35
  • 29 (a)
Y42A5A.1 35
  • 28 (a)
F49B2.6 34
  • 27 (a)
T16G12.1 35
  • 26 (a)
T07F10.1 35
  • 26 (a)
AC3.5 35
  • 22 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 34 (a)
Species where no ortholog for LNPEP was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for LNPEP Gene

Gene Tree for LNPEP (if available)
Gene Tree for LNPEP (if available)

Paralogs for LNPEP Gene

Paralogs for LNPEP Gene

(9) SIMAP similar genes for LNPEP Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with LNPEP: view

Variants for LNPEP Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LNPEP Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000017993 -- 97,002,696(+) A/G intron_variant
rs1000060592 -- 97,022,865(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000100819 -- 96,969,429(+) C/G intron_variant
rs1000157881 -- 96,974,558(+) A/G intron_variant
rs1000182073 -- 97,004,417(+) C/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LNPEP Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2730489 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2730490 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2740869 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3605871 CNV loss 21293372
esv3890674 CNV gain 25118596
nsv1021263 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1028741 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1123970 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1131903 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv507276 OTHER sequence alteration 20534489
nsv598962 CNV gain 21841781
nsv598963 CNV gain 21841781
nsv819519 CNV gain 19587683
nsv980700 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for LNPEP Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 6.39% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 9.22; 88.02% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for LNPEP Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LNPEP Gene

Disorders for LNPEP Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(11) MalaCards diseases for LNPEP Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
gestational diabetes insipidus
  • diabetes insipidus gestational
trophoblastic neoplasm
  • trophoblastic neoplasm nos
placental site trophoblastic tumor
  • placental-site gestational trophoblastic neoplasm
  • chorioepithelioma
dysgerminoma of ovary
  • ovarian dysgerminoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search LNPEP in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for LNPEP

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with LNPEP: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for LNPEP Gene

Publications for LNPEP Gene

  1. Human placental leucine aminopeptidase/oxytocinase. A new member of type II membrane-spanning zinc metallopeptidase family. (PMID: 8550619) Rogi T … Tomoda Y (The Journal of biological chemistry 1996) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Expression of placental leucine aminopeptidase/oxytocinase in neuronal cells and its action on neuronal peptides. (PMID: 11389728) Matsumoto H … Tsujimoto M (European journal of biochemistry 2001) 3 4 22 58
  3. Evidence that the angiotensin IV (AT(4)) receptor is the enzyme insulin-regulated aminopeptidase. (PMID: 11707427) Albiston AL … Chai SY (The Journal of biological chemistry 2001) 3 4 22 58
  4. Structure of the human oxytocinase/insulin-regulated aminopeptidase gene and localization to chromosome 5q21. (PMID: 10759854) Rasmussen TE … Kristensen T (European journal of biochemistry 2000) 3 4 22 58
  5. The complete amino acid sequence of human placental oxytocinase. (PMID: 9177475) Laustsen PG … Kristensen T (Biochimica et biophysica acta 1997) 3 4 22 58

Products for LNPEP Gene

Sources for LNPEP Gene

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