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Aliases for LIMK2 Gene

Aliases for LIMK2 Gene

  • LIM Domain Kinase 2 2 3 3 5
  • EC 4
  • LIMK-2 4

External Ids for LIMK2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LIMK2 Gene

  • GC22P028304
  • GC22P029932
  • GC22P031608
  • GC22P014569

Summaries for LIMK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LIMK2 Gene

  • There are approximately 40 known eukaryotic LIM proteins, so named for the LIM domains they contain. LIM domains are highly conserved cysteine-rich structures containing 2 zinc fingers. Although zinc fingers usually function by binding to DNA or RNA, the LIM motif probably mediates protein-protein interactions. LIM kinase-1 and LIM kinase-2 belong to a small subfamily with a unique combination of 2 N-terminal LIM motifs and a C-terminal protein kinase domain. The protein encoded by this gene is phosphorylated and activated by ROCK, a downstream effector of Rho, and the encoded protein, in turn, phosphorylates cofilin, inhibiting its actin-depolymerizing activity. It is thought that this pathway contributes to Rho-induced reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. At least three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for LIMK2 Gene

LIMK2 (LIM Domain Kinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are EGF/EGFR Signaling Pathway and Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is LIMK1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LIMK2 Gene

  • Displays serine/threonine-specific phosphorylation of myelin basic protein and histone (MBP) in vitro.

Tocris Summary for LIMK2 Gene

  • LIM kinases (LIMKs), EC, are dual specificity kinases (serine/threonine and tyrosine), which phosphorylate and inactivate cofilin (a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics). There are two isoforms of LIMK: LIMK1 and LIMK2.

Gene Wiki entry for LIMK2 Gene

Additional gene information for LIMK2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LIMK2 Gene

Genomics for LIMK2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for LIMK2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for LIMK2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH22J031209 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 678.2 -0.6 -624 4.3 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 LIMK2 RNF185 SF3A1 TUG1 ENSG00000214125 PLA2G3 PRR14L MORC2 TBC1D10A PIK3IP1
GH22J031247 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 668.8 +39.0 39025 8.5 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A RARA ZNF614 ZNF366 ATF7 THAP11 LIMK2 GC22P031249 SFI1 RNU6-1128P RNF185 PIK3IP1 MORC2 PPP1R14BP1
GH22J031214 Enhancer 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 46.9 +7.3 7292 9.7 HDGF FOXA2 ARID4B FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF48 ETS1 YY1 ATF7 RUNX3 LIMK2 PLA2G3 RNF185 SFI1 ENSG00000214125 PIK3IP1 EIF4ENIF1 RNU6-1128P GC22M031223
GH22J031226 Enhancer 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 30.2 +18.2 18169 7.3 HDGF ATF1 FOXA2 MLX ARNT ARID4B YY1 TCF12 ZNF121 ZNF766 GC22M031231 ENSG00000202019 LIMK2 RNF185 SFI1 SELENOM INPP5J PATZ1 LINC01521 PIK3IP1
GH22J031234 Enhancer 1.1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 20.2 +23.1 23142 1.6 MAX NR2F2 LIMK2 RNF185 SELENOM INPP5J PATZ1 LINC01521 SFI1 SMTN ENSG00000202019 GC22M031231
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around LIMK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the LIMK2 gene promoter:
  • LCR-F1
  • Pax-6
  • Tal-1beta
  • E47
  • HEN1
  • c-Myc
  • Max1
  • NF-AT
  • NF-AT1
  • NF-AT2

Genomic Locations for LIMK2 Gene

Genomic Locations for LIMK2 Gene
67,842 bases
Plus strand
67,842 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for LIMK2 Gene

Genes around LIMK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
LIMK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for LIMK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LIMK2 Gene

Proteins for LIMK2 Gene

  • Protein details for LIMK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    LIM domain kinase 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K6H5
    • Q7KZ80
    • Q7L3H5
    • Q96E10
    • Q99464
    • Q9UFU0

    Protein attributes for LIMK2 Gene

    638 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    72232 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Binds ROCK1 and MARF1 (Ref.9, PubMed:11018042, PubMed:10436159). Interacts with PARD3. Interacts with NISCH (By similarity).
    • Sequence=AAB54055.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for LIMK2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for LIMK2 Gene


neXtProt entry for LIMK2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for LIMK2 Gene

  • Phosphorylated on serine and/or threonine residues by ROCK1.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for LIMK2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for LIMK2 Gene

Domains & Families for LIMK2 Gene

Gene Families for LIMK2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for LIMK2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LIMK2: view

Function for LIMK2 Gene

Molecular function for LIMK2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Displays serine/threonine-specific phosphorylation of myelin basic protein and histone (MBP) in vitro.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
LIM motif containing protein kinase 2,cytosolic,alternatively spliced in two isoforms LIMK2A and LIMK2B differentially regulated in a tissue specific manner

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for LIMK2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for LIMK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LIMK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IEA --
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS 8537403
GO:0004871 obsolete signal transducer activity IBA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 22939624
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LIMK2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LIMK2: view

Animal Models for LIMK2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for LIMK2:
  • Limk2 Limk2<tm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi>
  • Limk2 Limk2<tm1.1Tnak>

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for LIMK2

CRISPR Products

miRNA for LIMK2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target LIMK2

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for LIMK2

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for LIMK2 Gene

Localization for LIMK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LIMK2 Gene

Isoform LIMK2a: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Isoform LIMK2a is distributed in the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
Isoform LIMK2b: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Isoform LIMK2b occurs mainly in the cytoplasm and is scarcely translocated to the nucleus.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LIMK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 3
cytoskeleton 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (3)
  • Nucleoplasm (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LIMK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus TAS 8954941
GO:0005737 cytoplasm TAS 8537403
GO:0005801 cis-Golgi network IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LIMK2: view

Pathways & Interactions for LIMK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LIMK2: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for LIMK2 Gene

Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LIMK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0007283 spermatogenesis IEA --
GO:0016310 phosphorylation TAS 8537403
GO:0035556 intracellular signal transduction IBA --
GO:0042325 regulation of phosphorylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LIMK2: view

Drugs & Compounds for LIMK2 Gene

(6) Drugs for LIMK2 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
fostamatinib Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor Kinase Inhibitors 0
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist, Activator, Full agonist, Antagonist, Potentiation, Pore Blocker 0
LIMKi 3 Pharma LIMK2 inhibitor, Potent LIM kinase inhibitor; antitumor 0

(4) Additional Compounds for LIMK2 Gene - From: HMDB, Novoseek, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 5'-Adenylphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine 5'-diphosphate
  • ADENOSINE-5'-diphosphATE
  • H3ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist, Partial agonist, Antagonist, Gating inhibitor 58-64-0
SR 7826
T 5601640

(3) Tocris Compounds for LIMK2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
LIMKi 3 Potent LIM kinase inhibitor; antitumor 1338247-35-0
SR 7826 Potent and selective LIMK inhibitor; antitumor 1219728-20-7
T 5601640 Selective LIMK2 inhibitor; antitumor 924473-59-6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LIMK2: view

Transcripts for LIMK2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for LIMK2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for LIMK2 Gene

LIM domain kinase 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for LIMK2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LIMK2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12 ^ 13 ^
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: -
SP5: - - - - - - -
SP6: - - -
SP8: - - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP10: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP11: - - -

ExUns: 14a · 14b · 14c ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17 ^ 18a · 18b
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: -
SP4: - -

Relevant External Links for LIMK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for LIMK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for LIMK2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for LIMK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x11.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for LIMK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreatic juice (42.2), Placenta (12.6), and Heart (11.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for LIMK2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for LIMK2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of LIMK2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LIMK2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LIMK2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Highest expression in the placenta; moderate level in liver, lung, kidney, and pancreas. LIMK2a is found to be more abundant then LIMK2b in liver, colon, stomach, and spleen, while in brain, kidney, and placenta LIMK2b is the dominant form. In adult lung, both LIMK2a and LIMK2b is nearly equally observed.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for LIMK2 Gene

  • Lung(4.5)
  • Nervous system(4.4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with LIMK2: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for LIMK2 Gene

Orthologs for LIMK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for LIMK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LIMK2 34 33
  • 99.27 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LIMK2 34 33
  • 91.95 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LIMK2 34 33
  • 90.13 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Limk2 33
  • 88.51 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Limk2 16 34 33
  • 88.35 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia LIMK2 34
  • 86 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia LIMK2 34
  • 81 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LIMK2 34 33
  • 79.47 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 35 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia limk2 33
  • 65.23 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii limk2 34 33
  • 68.13 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta LIMK1 34
  • 21 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea kin-21 34
  • 17 (a)
Y52D5A.2 34
  • 17 (a)
K09B11.5 34
  • 17 (a)
T25B9.5 34
  • 16 (a)
Y69E1A.3 34
  • 16 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 41 (a)
Species where no ortholog for LIMK2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for LIMK2 Gene

Gene Tree for LIMK2 (if available)
Gene Tree for LIMK2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for LIMK2: view image

Paralogs for LIMK2 Gene

Paralogs for LIMK2 Gene

(9) SIMAP similar genes for LIMK2 Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

  • B5BU33_HUMAN
  • B5MC51_HUMAN
  • C9JK61_HUMAN
  • L8E7T4_HUMAN
  • L8E888_HUMAN Pseudogenes for LIMK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with LIMK2: view

Variants for LIMK2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LIMK2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000015860 -- 31,212,744(+) C/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000068151 -- 31,212,454(+) C/G genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000084059 -- 31,271,243(+) C/G intron_variant
rs1000139953 -- 31,264,502(+) G/A intron_variant
rs1000151162 -- 31,218,941(+) G/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LIMK2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2543296 CNV insertion 19546169
esv3436353 CNV duplication 20981092
nsv1110864 OTHER inversion 24896259
nsv1125754 CNV tandem duplication 24896259
nsv459871 CNV loss 19166990
nsv588893 CNV loss 21841781
nsv962787 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for LIMK2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 13.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.49; 71.73% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for LIMK2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LIMK2 Gene

Disorders for LIMK2 Gene

Additional Disease Information for LIMK2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for LIMK2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for LIMK2 Gene

Publications for LIMK2 Gene

  1. Identification and characterization of a novel family of serine/threonine kinases containing two N-terminal LIM motifs. (PMID: 8537403) Okano I … Mizuno K (The Journal of biological chemistry 1995) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Specific activation of LIM kinase 2 via phosphorylation of threonine 505 by ROCK, a Rho-dependent protein kinase. (PMID: 11018042) Sumi T … Nakamura T (The Journal of biological chemistry 2001) 3 4 22 58
  3. Activation of LIM kinases by myotonic dystrophy kinase-related Cdc42-binding kinase alpha. (PMID: 11340065) Sumi T … Nakamura T (The Journal of biological chemistry 2001) 3 4 22 58
  4. The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22. (PMID: 10591208) Dunham I … O'Brien KP (Nature 1999) 2 3 4 58
  5. A genome-wide association study for diabetic nephropathy genes in African Americans. (PMID: 21150874) McDonough CW … Bowden DW (Kidney international 2011) 3 44 58

Products for LIMK2 Gene

Sources for LIMK2 Gene

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