Lactate dehydrogenase C catalyzes the conversion of L-lactate and NAD to pyruvate and NADH in the final step of anaerobic glycolysis. LDHC is testis-specific and belongs to the lactate dehydrogenase family. Two transcript variants have been detected which differ in the 5' untranslated region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] See more...

Aliases for LDHC Gene

Aliases for LDHC Gene

  • Lactate Dehydrogenase C 2 3 5
  • Cancer/Testis Antigen 32 2 3 4
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase C Chain 3 4
  • LDH Testis Subunit 3 4
  • EC 4 54
  • LDH-C 3 4
  • LDH-X 3 4
  • CT32 3 4
  • LDH3 3 4
  • LDHX 3 4
  • Testis Secretory Sperm-Binding Protein Li 234P 3
  • Lactate Dehydrogenase C Variant 1 3
  • Lactate Dehydrogenase C Variant 3 3
  • Lactate Dehydrogenase C Variant 4 3
  • Lactate Dehydrogenase C Variant 5 3
  • Lactate Dehydrogenase C4 3
  • EC 1.1.1 54

External Ids for LDHC Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LDHC Gene

  • GC11P019555
  • GC11P019376
  • GC11P018473
  • GC11P018398
  • GC11P018390
  • GC11P018119

Summaries for LDHC Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LDHC Gene

  • Lactate dehydrogenase C catalyzes the conversion of L-lactate and NAD to pyruvate and NADH in the final step of anaerobic glycolysis. LDHC is testis-specific and belongs to the lactate dehydrogenase family. Two transcript variants have been detected which differ in the 5' untranslated region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for LDHC Gene

LDHC (Lactate Dehydrogenase C) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with LDHC include Nuclear Senile Cataract and Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome 5. Among its related pathways are Pyruvate metabolism and Pyruvate metabolism and Citric Acid (TCA) cycle. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and L-lactate dehydrogenase activity. An important paralog of this gene is LDHA.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for LDHC Gene

Additional gene information for LDHC Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for LDHC Gene

Genomics for LDHC Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for LDHC Gene

Promoters and enhancers for LDHC Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH11J018411 Promoter/Enhancer 1.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 802.6 0.0 -42 1.2 SP1 POLR2A GLIS2 ZBTB8A PRDM10 PATZ1 ZBTB20 JUND ZBTB17 YY1 LDHC RF00017-881 SPTY2D1
GH11J018410 Enhancer 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE 800 -1.7 -1653 0.7 CTCF HLF CTBP1 RAD21 SMC3 ZNF143 XRCC5 LDHC RF00017-881 ENSG00000256006
GH11J018392 Promoter/Enhancer 2.4 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 50 -17.6 -17595 5 SP1 ZBTB40 ZBTB6 LCORL RBPJ POLR2A USF2 HDAC2 NR2F6 ATF1 LDHA lnc-HPS5-2 LDHC GTF2H1 SAAL1 ENSG00000256282 TSG101 HSALNG0083003
GH11J018382 Promoter/Enhancer 1.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 46 -28.2 -28232 3 SIN3A ZBTB40 POLR2A MIXL1 ETV6 ELF1 L3MBTL2 RAD21 MNT ZKSCAN8 LDHC LDHA LDHAL6A SPTY2D1 HPS5 TSG101 MIR3159 lnc-GTF2H1-2
GH11J018587 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 20.3 +177.2 177167 4.8 SIN3A SP1 ZBTB40 RBPJ POLR2A NR2F6 CREB1 CC2D1A NFYC ETV6 SPTY2D1OS UEVLD lnc-UEVLD-1 lnc-UEVLD-7 lnc-TMEM86A-5 SAAL1 SPTY2D1 TSG101 GTF2H1 ENSG00000256282
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around LDHC on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the LDHC gene promoter:
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB
  • POU2F1
  • POU2F1a

Genomic Locations for LDHC Gene

Genomic Locations for LDHC Gene
39,758 bases
Plus strand
39,753 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for LDHC Gene

Genes around LDHC on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
LDHC Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for LDHC Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LDHC Gene

Proteins for LDHC Gene

  • Protein details for LDHC Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    L-lactate dehydrogenase C chain
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D3DQY4
    • Q6GSG8
    • Q7Z7J4

    Protein attributes for LDHC Gene

    332 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    36311 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer. Interacts with RABL2/RABL2A; binds preferentially to GTP-bound RABL2 (By similarity).

neXtProt entry for LDHC Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for LDHC Gene


Post-translational modifications for LDHC Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for LDHC Gene

Gene Families for LDHC Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for LDHC Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • L-lactate dehydrogenase (F5H155_HUMAN)
  • L-lactate dehydrogenase (F5H245_HUMAN)
  • L-lactate dehydrogenase (F5H5G7_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the LDH/MDH superfamily. LDH family.
  • Belongs to the LDH/MDH superfamily. LDH family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LDHC: view

Function for LDHC Gene

Molecular function for LDHC Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Possible role in sperm motility.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=(S)-lactate + NAD(+) = H(+) + NADH + pyruvate; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:23444, ChEBI:CHEBI:15361, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:16651, ChEBI:CHEBI:57540, ChEBI:CHEBI:57945; EC=;.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
lactate dehydrogenase C,glycolysis,energy pathway

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for LDHC Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for LDHC Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LDHC Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004459 L-lactate dehydrogenase activity IEA --
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0016616 oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LDHC: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LDHC: view

Animal Models for LDHC Gene

MGI Knock Outs for LDHC:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for LDHC Gene

Localization for LDHC Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LDHC Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LDHC gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 2
plasma membrane 1
cytoskeleton 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LDHC Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus HDA 21630459
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005929 cilium IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LDHC: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for LDHC Gene

Pathways & Interactions for LDHC Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LDHC: view

Pathways by source for LDHC Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for LDHC Gene
1 Qiagen pathway for LDHC Gene
  • Metabolic States and Circadian Oscillators
1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for LDHC Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P07864-LDHC_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Fermentation; pyruvate fermentation to lactate; (S)-lactate from pyruvate: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LDHC Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006090 pyruvate metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006754 ATP biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0019244 lactate biosynthetic process from pyruvate IEA --
GO:0019516 lactate oxidation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LDHC: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for LDHC Gene

Drugs & Compounds for LDHC Gene

(10) Drugs for LDHC Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
NADH Approved Nutra Target 0
Stiripentol Approved Pharma An LDH inhibitor 11
Pyruvic acid Approved, Investigational Nutra 0
2-Ketobutyric acid Experimental Pharma 0
D-Lactic acid Experimental Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0

(6) Additional Compounds for LDHC Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
2-Hydroxybutyric acid
  • 2-Hydroxybutanoic acid
  • alpha-Hydroxybutanoic acid
  • alpha-Hydroxybutyric acid
  • 2-Hydroxybutanoate
  • 2-Hydroxybutyrate
3-Mercaptolactic acid
  • 3-Mercaptolactate
  • b-Mercaptolactate
  • b-Mercaptolactic acid
  • beta-Mercaptolactate
  • beta-Mercaptolactic acid
3-Mercaptopyruvic acid
  • 3-mercapto-2-Oxopropanoic acid
  • 3-Mercaptopyruvate
  • Mercaptopyruvate
  • 3-mercapto-2-Oxopropanoate
  • Mercaptopyruvic acid
Hydrogen Ion
  • H+
  • H(+)
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton

(2) ApexBio Compounds for LDHC Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Isosafrole A stiripentol analog, a potent LDH inhibitor. 120-58-1
Stiripentol An LDH inhibitor 49763-96-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LDHC: view

Transcripts for LDHC Gene

mRNA/cDNA for LDHC Gene

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LDHC Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b
SP1: -
SP3: - -
SP4: - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: - - - -

Relevant External Links for LDHC Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for LDHC Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for LDHC Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for LDHC Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x49.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for LDHC Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Ovary (19.4), Amniocyte (17.7), Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (16.8), and Testis (13.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for LDHC Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of LDHC Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LDHC Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for LDHC Gene

  • Nervous system(4.3)
  • Heart(2.8)
  • Liver(2.6)
  • Blood(2.2)
  • Muscle(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with LDHC: view

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for LDHC Gene

Orthologs for LDHC Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for LDHC Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LDHC 33 32
  • 99.9 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LDHC 33 32
  • 90.86 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LDHC 33 32
  • 88.96 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ldhc 17 33 32
  • 79.49 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ldhc 32
  • 77.98 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 33
  • 72 (a)
-- 33
  • 56 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia LDHC 33
  • 68 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LDHA 33
  • 72 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 33
  • 71 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ldha 33
  • 68 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta ImpL3 33 34
  • 58 (a)
CG13334 33 34
  • 35 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ldh-1 33 34
  • 57 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.11301 33
  • 55 (a)
Species where no ortholog for LDHC was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for LDHC Gene

Gene Tree for LDHC (if available)
Gene Tree for LDHC (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for LDHC: view image

Paralogs for LDHC Gene

Paralogs for LDHC Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for LDHC Gene using alignment to 13 proteins:

  • F5GZ11_HUMAN
  • F5H155_HUMAN
  • F5H245_HUMAN
  • F5H326_HUMAN
  • F5H5G7_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with LDHC: view

Variants for LDHC Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LDHC Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000030420 -- 18,446,090(+) A/G intron_variant
rs1000143442 -- 18,417,994(+) C/A/T intron_variant
rs1000156791 -- 18,427,008(+) A/C intron_variant
rs1000265224 -- 18,412,095(+) A/C upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000271672 -- 18,445,897(+) C/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LDHC Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2671789 CNV deletion 23128226
esv3625500 CNV loss 21293372
nsv467719 CNV gain 19166990
nsv509392 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv510999 OTHER complex 20534489
nsv553633 CNV gain 21841781
nsv553634 CNV gain 21841781

Variation tolerance for LDHC Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 67.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.96; 49.39% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for LDHC Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LDHC Gene

Disorders for LDHC Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(7) MalaCards diseases for LDHC Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
nuclear senile cataract
  • senile nuclear cataract
hermansky-pudlak syndrome 5
  • albinism with hemorrhagic diathesis and pigmented reticuloendothelial cells
phototoxic dermatitis
  • photosensitisation reaction
korean hemorrhagic fever
  • hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
dressler's syndrome
  • dressler syndrome
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search LDHC in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for LDHC

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with LDHC: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for LDHC Gene

Publications for LDHC Gene

  1. A spermatogenesis-related gene expression profile in human spermatozoa and its potential clinical applications. (PMID: 14985855) Wang H … Sha J (Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany) 2004) 3 4 23 56
  2. Genome-wide association study identifies two novel regions at 11p15.5-p13 and 1p31 with major impact on acute-phase serum amyloid A. (PMID: 21124955) Marzi C … Gieger C (PLoS genetics 2010) 3 43 56
  3. Homo sapiens lactate dehydrogenase c (Ldhc) gene expression in cancer cells is regulated by transcription factor Sp1, CREB, and CpG island methylation. (PMID: 18930904) Tang H … Goldberg E (Journal of andrology 2009) 3 23 56
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 56
  5. Multiple splice variants of lactate dehydrogenase C selectively expressed in human cancer. (PMID: 12438276) Koslowski M … Sahin U (Cancer research 2002) 3 23 56

Products for LDHC Gene

Sources for LDHC Gene