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Aliases for LARS Gene

Aliases for LARS Gene

  • Leucyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 3 4 5
  • Leucine TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic 2 3
  • Cytoplasmic Leucyl-TRNA Synthetase 3
  • Leucine--TRNA Ligase, Cytoplasmic 3
  • Cytosolic Leucyl-TRNA Synthetase 3
  • Proliferation-Inducing Gene 44 3
  • Leucine Translase 3
  • EC 4
  • KIAA1352 4
  • HSPC192 3
  • Hr025Cl 3
  • ILFS1 3
  • LARS1 3
  • LEURS 3
  • PIG44 3
  • RNTLS 3
  • LeuRS 4
  • LEUS 3
  • LFIS 3
  • LRS 3

External Ids for LARS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LARS Gene

  • GC05M145468
  • GC05M146077
  • GC05M145521
  • GC05M145473
  • GC05M140639

Summaries for LARS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LARS Gene

  • This gene encodes a cytosolic leucine-tRNA synthetase, a member of the class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the ATP-dependent ligation of L-leucine to tRNA(Leu). It is found in the cytoplasm as part of a multisynthetase complex and interacts with the arginine tRNA synthetase through its C-terminal domain. A mutation in this gene was found in affected individuals with infantile liver failure syndrome 1. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2015]

GeneCards Summary for LARS Gene

LARS (Leucyl-TRNA Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with LARS include Infantile Liver Failure Syndrome 1 and Conjugate Gaze Palsy. Among its related pathways are tRNA Aminoacylation and Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and aminoacyl-tRNA editing activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LARS Gene

  • Catalyzes the specific attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA in a two step reaction: the amino acid (AA) is first activated by ATP to form AA-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of the tRNA. Exhibits a post-transfer editing activity to hydrolyze mischarged tRNAs.

Gene Wiki entry for LARS Gene

Additional gene information for LARS Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LARS Gene

Genomics for LARS Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for LARS Gene

Promoters and enhancers for LARS Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH05J146181 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 698.8 +0.4 354 2.5 MLX DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC ZNF610 LARS RBM27 ENSG00000271724 ENSG00000250025 PPP2R2B-IT1 TCERG1 GC05M146120
GH05J146202 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 44.5 -20.8 -20846 2.7 PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARNT ARID4B NEUROD1 SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 IRF4 RBM27 ENSG00000275740 LARS GC05P146208
GH05J146137 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE 36.7 +44.5 44527 1.4 ELF3 FOXA2 ARID4B RARA ETS1 SCRT2 ATF7 CREM THAP11 MIXL1 RPL35AP17 RPL35AP16 GC05M146120 LARS PLAC8L1
GH05J146446 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 12.3 -265.0 -265039 2.5 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK SMAD1 MLX ARNT ARID4B NEUROD1 SIN3A DMAP1 TCERG1 RBM27 LARS GPR151 ENSG00000277568
GH05J145833 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.3 +347.5 347481 3.8 HDGF ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZBTB7B YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B PRELID2 GRXCR2 LARS TCERG1 GC05M145704
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around LARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the LARS gene promoter:
  • JunD
  • JunB
  • Fra-1
  • FosB
  • c-Jun
  • c-Fos
  • AP-1
  • Pax-2
  • Pax-2a
  • Pax-2b

Genomic Locations for LARS Gene

Genomic Locations for LARS Gene
69,762 bases
Minus strand
69,706 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for LARS Gene

Genes around LARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
LARS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for LARS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LARS Gene

Proteins for LARS Gene

  • Protein details for LARS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Leucine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A2RRR4
    • A7E266
    • B4DJ10
    • Q2TU79
    • Q9NSE1

    Protein attributes for LARS Gene

    1176 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    134466 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=BAA92590.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for LARS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for LARS Gene


neXtProt entry for LARS Gene

Post-translational modifications for LARS Gene

  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=2, 3832, isoforms=2, 3814, isoforms=2, 3733, isoforms=2, 3719, posLast=716716, isoforms=2659, posLast=341341, isoforms=2278, isoforms=2193, isoforms=2155, isoforms=45, and isoforms=39
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for LARS Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for LARS Gene

Domains & Families for LARS Gene

Gene Families for LARS Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LARS: view

Function for LARS Gene

Molecular function for LARS Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the specific attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA in a two step reaction: the amino acid (AA) is first activated by ATP to form AA-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of the tRNA. Exhibits a post-transfer editing activity to hydrolyze mischarged tRNAs.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-leucine + tRNA(Leu) = AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNA(Leu).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
5-fluoro-1,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-1,2-benzoxaborole inhibits LARS by forming a covalent adduct with the 3 adenosine of tRNA(Leu) at the editing site, thus locking the enzyme in an inactive conformation.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
leucyl-tRNA synthetase

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for LARS Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for LARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002161 aminoacyl-tRNA editing activity IEA --
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
GO:0004819 glutamine-tRNA ligase activity IDA 26869582
GO:0004823 leucine-tRNA ligase activity TAS,IBA --
GO:0004832 valine-tRNA ligase activity IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LARS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LARS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for LARS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for LARS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for LARS:
  • Lars Lars<tm1b(KOMP)Wtsi>

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for LARS

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for LARS

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for LARS Gene

Localization for LARS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LARS Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LARS gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
lysosome 4
plasma membrane 2
mitochondrion 2
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1
golgi apparatus 1
endosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (3)
  • Nuclear bodies (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 22424946
GO:0005764 lysosome IMP 22424946
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IDA 22424946
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0012505 endomembrane system IDA 22424946
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LARS: view

Pathways & Interactions for LARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LARS: view

Pathways by source for LARS Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for LARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation IEA --
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS --
GO:0006425 glutaminyl-tRNA aminoacylation IDA 26869582
GO:0006429 leucyl-tRNA aminoacylation IBA --
GO:0006438 valyl-tRNA aminoacylation IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LARS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for LARS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for LARS Gene

(5) Drugs for LARS Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Leucine Approved Nutra Target 0
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved, Investigational Nutra 0
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist, Activator, Full agonist, Antagonist, Potentiation, Pore Blocker 0

(6) Additional Compounds for LARS Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Ceramide (d18:1/16:0)
  • (2S,3R,4E)-2-acylamino-1,3-Octadec-4-enediol
  • (2S,3R,4E)-2-Acylaminooctadec-4-ene-1,3-diol
  • C16 Cer
  • C16 Ceramide
  • C16-0(Palmitoyl)ceramide
  • [(ho)2P(O)OP(O)(OH)2]
  • Acide diphosphorique
  • Diphosphorsaeure
  • H4P2O7
  • PYROphosphATE
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LARS: view

Transcripts for LARS Gene

Unigene Clusters for LARS Gene

Leucyl-tRNA synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for LARS

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LARS Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21a · 21b ^ 22 ^ 23a · 23b ^
SP1: - - -
SP3: -
SP5: -
SP8: -

ExUns: 24 ^ 25 ^ 26 ^ 27a · 27b ^ 28a · 28b ^ 29 ^ 30 ^ 31 ^ 32 ^ 33 ^ 34 ^ 35
SP1: - -
SP4: -
SP6: - -

Relevant External Links for LARS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for LARS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for LARS Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for LARS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (8.4) and Lymph node (7.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for LARS Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for LARS Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of LARS Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LARS Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for LARS Gene

  • Nervous system(5)
  • Liver(4.7)
  • Heart(3.2)
  • Intestine(3.1)
  • Skin(2.8)
  • Blood(2.7)
  • Eye(2.7)
  • Lung(2.7)
  • Muscle(2.5)
  • Lymph node(2.3)
  • Kidney(2.2)
  • Spleen(2.2)
  • Pancreas(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for LARS Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • head
  • skull
  • liver
  • blood
  • coagulation system
  • red blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with LARS: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LARS Gene

Orthologs for LARS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for LARS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LARS 34 33
  • 99.35 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LARS 34 33
  • 92.38 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LARS 34 33
  • 91.01 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Lars 33
  • 86.9 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Lars 16 34 33
  • 85.97 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia LARS 34
  • 85 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia LARS 34
  • 84 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LARS 34 33
  • 79.11 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia LARS 34
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia lars 33
  • 75.88 (n)
Str.5585 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii larsa 34 34
  • 79 (a)
larsb 34 33
  • 71.02 (n)
wufb36b12 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG33123 34 33
  • 59.98 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP008297 33
  • 58.48 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea lars-1 34 33
  • 59.57 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AAL088W 33
  • 54.2 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0D06105g 33
  • 53.83 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes CDC60 36 34 33
  • 53.43 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT1G09620 33
  • 56.22 (n)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.978 33
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os09g0503400 33
  • 57.78 (n)
Os.24539 33
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.6307 33
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.12595 33
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.7517 33
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.9718 34
  • 63 (a)
Cin.11019 33
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes lrs1 33
  • 56.88 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU09463 33
  • 51.34 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.11019 33
Species where no ortholog for LARS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for LARS Gene

Gene Tree for LARS (if available)
Gene Tree for LARS (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for LARS: view image

Paralogs for LARS Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for LARS Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

  • B4DJ10_HUMAN
  • F5H698_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with LARS: view

No data available for Paralogs for LARS Gene

Variants for LARS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LARS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs201861847 pathogenic, Infantile liver failure syndrome 1, Infantile liver failure syndrome 1 (ILFS1) [MIM:615438] 146,153,928(-) T/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs863224047 pathogenic, not provided 146,172,759(-) AAAATA/A 5_prime_UTR_variant, coding_sequence_variant, frameshift
rs863224048 pathogenic, not provided 146,177,587(-) CTCTCTC/CTCTC 5_prime_UTR_variant, coding_sequence_variant, frameshift, intron_variant
rs1057523128 likely-pathogenic, not provided 146,151,981(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1057523129 likely-pathogenic, not provided 146,124,014(-) C/G coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LARS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1264154 CNV insertion 17803354
nsv1137533 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1153535 CNV duplication 26484159
nsv428128 CNV loss 18775914
nsv969002 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for LARS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 24.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 11.85; 93.47% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for LARS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LARS Gene

Disorders for LARS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(10) MalaCards diseases for LARS Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
infantile liver failure syndrome 1
  • ilfs1
conjugate gaze palsy
  • palsy of conjugate gaze
osmotic diarrhea
hernia, hiatus
  • hiatal hernia
retinitis pigmentosa 66
  • rp66
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search LARS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Infantile liver failure syndrome 1 (ILFS1) [MIM:615438]: A life-threatening disorder of hepatic function that manifests with acute liver failure in the first few months of life. Clinical features include anemia, renal tubulopathy, developmental delay, seizures, failure to thrive, and liver steatosis and fibrosis. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:22607940}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for LARS

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with LARS: view

No data available for Genatlas for LARS Gene

Publications for LARS Gene

  1. Crystal structures of the human and fungal cytosolic Leucyl-tRNA synthetase editing domains: A structural basis for the rational design of antifungal benzoxaboroles. (PMID: 19426743) Seiradake E … Cusack S (Journal of molecular biology 2009) 3 4 22 58
  2. Identification of a mutation in LARS as a novel cause of infantile hepatopathy. (PMID: 22607940) Casey JP … Ennis S (Molecular genetics and metabolism 2012) 3 4 58
  3. A paradigm shift for the amino acid editing mechanism of human cytoplasmic leucyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 19702327) Pang YL … Martinis SA (Biochemistry 2009) 3 22 58
  4. Implication of leucyl-tRNA synthetase 1 (LARS1) over-expression in growth and migration of lung cancer cells detected by siRNA targeted knock-down analysis. (PMID: 18446061) Shin SH … Chung YJ (Experimental & molecular medicine 2008) 3 22 58
  5. A single residue in leucyl-tRNA synthetase affecting amino acid specificity and tRNA aminoacylation. (PMID: 17378584) Lue SW … Kelley SO (Biochemistry 2007) 3 22 58

Products for LARS Gene

Sources for LARS Gene

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