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Aliases for KYAT1 Gene

Aliases for KYAT1 Gene

  • Kynurenine Aminotransferase 1 2 3 4 5
  • Glutamine--Phenylpyruvate Transaminase 2 3 4
  • Kynurenine Aminotransferase I 2 3 4
  • Glutamine Transaminase K 2 3 4
  • Cysteine Conjugate-Beta Lyase; Cytoplasmic (Glutamine Transaminase K, Kyneurenine Aminotransferase) 2 3
  • Kynurenine--Oxoglutarate Transaminase I 3 4
  • Cysteine-S-Conjugate Beta-Lyase 3 4
  • Cysteine Conjugate Beta Lyase 1 2 3
  • CCBL1 3 4
  • KATI 3 4
  • GTK 3 4
  • Cysteine Conjugate-Beta Lyase, Cytoplasmic 3
  • Glutamine-Phenylpyruvate Aminotransferase 3
  • Kynurenine--Oxoglutarate Transaminase 1 3
  • Kyneurenine Aminotransferase 3
  • Beta-Lysase, Kidney 3
  • EC 4
  • EC 4
  • EC 4
  • KAT1 3

External Ids for KYAT1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for KYAT1 Gene

  • CCBL1

Summaries for KYAT1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for KYAT1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a cytosolic enzyme that is responsible for the metabolism of cysteine conjugates of certain halogenated alkenes and alkanes. This metabolism can form reactive metabolites leading to nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Increased levels of this enzyme have been linked to schizophrenia. Multiple transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for KYAT1 Gene

KYAT1 (Kynurenine Aminotransferase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with KYAT1 include Schizophrenia. Among its related pathways are Histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, proline and tryptophan catabolism and Metabolism. An important paralog of this gene is KYAT3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KYAT1 Gene

  • Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). Metabolizes the cysteine conjugates of certain halogenated alkenes and alkanes to form reactive metabolites. Catalyzes the beta-elimination of S-conjugates and Se-conjugates of L-(seleno)cysteine, resulting in the cleavage of the C-S or C-Se bond.

Gene Wiki entry for KYAT1 Gene

Additional gene information for KYAT1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for KYAT1 Gene

Genomics for KYAT1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for KYAT1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for KYAT1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH09J128877 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 659 -0.8 -771 12.3 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 E2F8 KYAT1 LRRC8A NUP188 NAIF1 GLE1 SPOUT1 PHYHD1 TOR1B DOLK PKN3
GH09J128549 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 9.7 +327.7 327718 10.5 FEZF1 IRF4 YY1 E2F8 SP3 MEF2D ZNF610 GLIS1 RCOR2 NBN SPTAN1 URM1 NAIF1 TOR2A NUP188 CDK9 SPOUT1 ODF2 MIGA2 KYAT1
GH09J128786 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 10.4 +94.9 94893 2.6 CLOCK MLX DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC MEF2D TBC1D13 SPOUT1 MIGA2 ZDHHC12 LOC100506100 PKN3 KYAT1 LRRC8A SLC25A25-AS1 CIZ1
GH09J128909 Enhancer 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.5 -29.7 -29723 5.5 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARID4B ZBTB7B TCF12 GLIS2 FOS SP5 REST ZNF592 LRRC8A KYAT1 PHYHD1 NUP188 DOLK SPOUT1 ZDHHC12 LOC100506100 PKN3 GLE1
GH09J128859 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE dbSUPER 20.4 +21.9 21858 1.5 PKNOX1 CEBPG IRF9 ZFHX2 CTBP1 EGR1 PHF20 ZSCAN5C TRIM24 EGR2 KYAT1 LRRC8A PHYHD1 PKN3 TBC1D13 GC09P128831
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around KYAT1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for KYAT1 Gene

Genomic Locations for KYAT1 Gene
49,572 bases
Minus strand
49,553 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for KYAT1 Gene

Genes around KYAT1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
KYAT1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for KYAT1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for KYAT1 Gene

Proteins for KYAT1 Gene

  • Protein details for KYAT1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5T275
    • Q8N191

    Protein attributes for KYAT1 Gene

    422 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    47875 Da
    Name=pyridoxal 5-phosphate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:597326;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for KYAT1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for KYAT1 Gene


neXtProt entry for KYAT1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for KYAT1 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for KYAT1 Gene

Domains & Families for KYAT1 Gene

Gene Families for KYAT1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-I pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family.
  • Belongs to the class-I pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with KYAT1: view

Function for KYAT1 Gene

Molecular function for KYAT1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). Metabolizes the cysteine conjugates of certain halogenated alkenes and alkanes to form reactive metabolites. Catalyzes the beta-elimination of S-conjugates and Se-conjugates of L-(seleno)cysteine, resulting in the cleavage of the C-S or C-Se bond.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-kynurenine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-(2-aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoate + L-glutamate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-glutamine + phenylpyruvate = 2-oxoglutaramate + L-phenylalanine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
An L-cysteine-S-conjugate + H(2)O = RSH + NH(3) + pyruvate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited by tryptophan, indole-3-pyruvic acid, 3-indolepropionic acid, DL-indole-3-lactic acid, indole-3-acetic acid (IAC) and Tris.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for KYAT1 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for KYAT1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for KYAT1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0008483 transaminase activity TAS,IEA 7883047
GO:0016212 kynurenine-oxoglutarate transaminase activity IEA,IDA 19338303
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0016829 lyase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KYAT1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with KYAT1: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for KYAT1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target KYAT1

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for KYAT1 Gene

Localization for KYAT1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KYAT1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for KYAT1 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (4)
  • Nucleoplasm (4)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for KYAT1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IDA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KYAT1: view

Pathways & Interactions for KYAT1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with KYAT1: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q16773-KAT1_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amino-acid degradation; L-kynurenine degradation; kynurenate from L-kynurenine: step 1/2.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for KYAT1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006559 L-phenylalanine catabolic process TAS --
GO:0006569 tryptophan catabolic process TAS --
GO:0006575 cellular modified amino acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0008652 cellular amino acid biosynthetic process TAS --
GO:0009058 biosynthetic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KYAT1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for KYAT1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for KYAT1 Gene

(29) Drugs for KYAT1 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Glutamine Approved, Investigational Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Enzyme, substrate 0
Pyridoxal Phosphate Approved, Investigational Nutra Target, cofactor 17
Ammonia Approved Pharma 0
Water Approved Pharma 0
Glutamic Acid Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist 251

(22) Additional Compounds for KYAT1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
2-Keto-glutaramic acid
  • 2-Ketoglutaramate
  • alpha-Ketoglutaramate
  • 2-Ketoglutaramic acid
  • 2-keto-Glutaramate
  • a-Ketoglutaramate
2-Oxo-4-methylthiobutanoic acid
  • 2-keto-4-Methylthiobutyric acid
  • 2-oxo-4-Methylthiobutanoate
  • 2-Oxomethionine
  • 4-(METHYLsulfanyl)-2-oxobutanoIC ACID
  • 4-methylthio-2-Oxobutanoate
4-(2-Amino-3-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid
  • 4-(2-amino-3-Hydroxyphenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoate
4-(2-Aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid
  • 4-(2-Aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoate
  • 4-(2-Aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxo-butanoate
  • 4-(2-Aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxo-butanoic acid
  • (2S)-2-amino-4-(2-amino-3-Hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid
  • 3-(3-Hydroxyanthraniloyl)-L-alanine
  • (2S)-2-amino-4-(2-amino-3-Hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxobutanoate
  • 3-(2-amino-3-Hydroxybenzoyl)-L-alanine
  • 3-Hydroxy-L-kynurenine
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with KYAT1: view

Transcripts for KYAT1 Gene

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for KYAT1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for KYAT1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for KYAT1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of KYAT1 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for KYAT1 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.6)
  • Kidney(4.4)
  • Muscle(4.1)
No Expression Related Data Available

No data available for mRNA expression in normal human tissues , mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for KYAT1 Gene

Orthologs for KYAT1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for KYAT1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CCBL1 34 33
  • 99.05 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CCBL1 34 33
  • 87.52 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CCBL1 34 33
  • 86.48 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ccbl1 34 33
  • 84.16 (n)
Kyat1 16
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ccbl1 33
  • 82.21 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia CCBL1 34
  • 74 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CCBL1 34 33
  • 67.06 (n)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ccbl1 33
  • 64.99 (n)
Str.5700 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.23940 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ccbl1 34
  • 57 (a)
wufd11f02 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG6950 34
  • 43 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea nkat-3 34
  • 37 (a)
nkat-1 34
  • 36 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AEL170C 33
  • 48.39 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes BNA3 36 34
  • 31 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os10g0484700 33
  • 46.9 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 49 (a)
CSA.3659 34
  • 44 (a)
Cin.9098 33
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.9098 33
Species where no ortholog for KYAT1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for KYAT1 Gene

Gene Tree for KYAT1 (if available)
Gene Tree for KYAT1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for KYAT1: view image

Paralogs for KYAT1 Gene

Paralogs for KYAT1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with KYAT1: view

Variants for KYAT1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for KYAT1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000269770 -- 128,866,458(-) G/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000270972 -- 128,868,689(-) A/C genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000271816 -- 128,837,114(-) A/T intron_variant
rs1000411635 -- 128,843,098(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1000424572 -- 128,860,583(-) T/G 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for KYAT1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1079251 CNV deletion 17803354
esv3621819 CNV gain 21293372
nsv1115233 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv6724 CNV insertion 18451855

Variation tolerance for KYAT1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 90.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.26; 40.51% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for KYAT1 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KYAT1 Gene

Disorders for KYAT1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for KYAT1 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • sczd
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search KYAT1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for KYAT1

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with KYAT1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for KYAT1 Gene

Publications for KYAT1 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning and expression of a cDNA for human kidney cysteine conjugate beta-lyase. (PMID: 7883047) Perry S … Goldfarb P (FEBS letters 1995) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Structural insight into the inhibition of human kynurenine aminotransferase I/glutamine transaminase K. (PMID: 19338303) Han Q … Li J (Journal of medicinal chemistry 2009) 3 4 22 58
  3. Crystal structure of human kynurenine aminotransferase I. (PMID: 15364907) Rossi F … Rizzi M (The Journal of biological chemistry 2004) 3 4 22 58
  4. Substrate specificity of human glutamine transaminase K as an aminotransferase and as a cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase. (PMID: 18342615) Cooper AJ … Spencer JP (Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2008) 3 22 58
  5. Determination of kynurenic acid in human serum and its correlation with the concentration of certain amino acids. (PMID: 17112493) Fukushima T … Toyo'oka T (Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 2007) 22 25 58

Products for KYAT1 Gene

Sources for KYAT1 Gene

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