This gene, a Kirsten ras oncogene homolog from the mammalian ras gene family, encodes a protein that is a member of the small GTPase superfamily. A single amino acid substitution is responsible for an activating mutation. The transforming protein that results is implicated in various malignancies, including lung adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenoma, ductal carcinoma of the pancreas... See more...

Aliases for KRAS Gene

Aliases for KRAS Gene

  • KRAS Proto-Oncogene, GTPase 2 3 5
  • V-Ki-Ras2 Kirsten Rat Sarcoma 2 Viral Oncogene Homolog 2 3
  • Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 2 3
  • GTPase KRas 3 4
  • C-Ki-Ras 3 4
  • K-Ras 2 3 4
  • KRAS2 3 4
  • RASK2 3 4
  • V-Ki-Ras2 Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 2
  • Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Proto-Oncogene 3
  • Cellular Transforming Proto-Oncogene 3
  • Cellular C-Ki-Ras2 Proto-Oncogene 3
  • Transforming Protein P21 3
  • PR310 C-K-Ras Oncogene 3
  • C-Kirsten-Ras Protein 3
  • K-Ras P21 Protein 3
  • Oncogene KRAS2 3
  • C-Ki-Ras2 3
  • C-K-RAS 3
  • K-RAS2A 3
  • K-RAS2B 3
  • K-RAS4A 3
  • K-RAS4B 3
  • C-K-Ras 4
  • KI-RAS 3
  • Ki-Ras 4
  • K-Ras 3
  • KRAS1 3
  • CFC2 3
  • RALD 3
  • NS3 3
  • OES 3
  • NS 3

External Ids for KRAS Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for KRAS Gene

  • KRAS2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for KRAS Gene

  • GC12M025250
  • GC12M025358
  • GC12M025128

Summaries for KRAS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for KRAS Gene

  • This gene, a Kirsten ras oncogene homolog from the mammalian ras gene family, encodes a protein that is a member of the small GTPase superfamily. A single amino acid substitution is responsible for an activating mutation. The transforming protein that results is implicated in various malignancies, including lung adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenoma, ductal carcinoma of the pancreas and colorectal carcinoma. Alternative splicing leads to variants encoding two isoforms that differ in the C-terminal region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CIViC Summary for KRAS Gene

  • Mutations in the RAS family of proteins are frequently observed across cancer types. The amino acid positions that account for the overwhelming majority of these mutations are G12, G13 and Q61. The different protein isoforms, despite their raw similarity, also behave very differently when expressed in non-native tissue types, likely due to differences in the C-terminal hyper-variable regions. Mis-regulation of isoform expression has been shown to be a driving event in cancer, as well as missense mutations at the three hotspots previously mentioned. While highly recurrent in cancer, attempts to target these RAS mutants with inhibitors have not been successful, and has not yet become common practice in the clinic. The prognostic implications for KRAS mutations vary between cancer types, but have been shown to be associated with poor outcome in colorectal cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and others.

GeneCards Summary for KRAS Gene

KRAS (KRAS Proto-Oncogene, GTPase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with KRAS include Noonan Syndrome 3 and Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome 2. Among its related pathways are VEGF Signaling Pathway and MAPK-Erk Pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include GTP binding. An important paralog of this gene is NRAS.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for KRAS Gene

  • Ras proteins bind GDP/GTP and possess intrinsic GTPase activity. Plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation (PubMed:23698361, PubMed:22711838). Plays a role in promoting oncogenic events by inducing transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in a ZNF304-dependent manner (PubMed:24623306).

Gene Wiki entry for KRAS Gene

PharmGKB "VIP" Summary for KRAS Gene

Additional gene information for KRAS Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for KRAS Gene

Genomics for KRAS Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for KRAS Gene

Promoters and enhancers for KRAS Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH12J025249 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 759.4 +0.2 217 3 ZNF785 ZBTB40 RBPJ SMARCE1 POLR2A HCFC1 MYC L3MBTL2 MAX ZNF121 KRAS CASC1 LRMP piR-58767
GH12J025194 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 14.3 +55.4 55430 2.8 SIN3A ZBTB40 SP1 POLR2A ATF1 CREB1 HCFC1 MYC CC2D1A ETV6 CASC1 ETFRF1 lnc-KRAS-2 lnc-LRMP-6 KRAS RASSF8-AS1 ENSG00000274987
GH12J025383 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 13.7 -135.0 -134981 4.1 ZNF24 SP1 CTCF FOXA1 MLX RBPJ SMARCE1 POLR2A USF2 HDAC2 ENSG00000278743 lnc-ETFRF1-6 lnc-ETFRF1-7 KRAS
GH12J025275 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 12.1 -25.6 -25557 1.4 SMARCE1 MYC CC2D1A HLF L3MBTL2 MAX NFIB GTF2F1 MAFK BACH1 KRAS RASSF8-AS1 TDGP1 piR-59458
GH12J024943 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 4.3 +302.6 302616 9.6 ZNF24 SP1 ZBTB40 ZBTB6 SMARCE1 HDAC2 MYC CC2D1A NFYC ETV6 BCAT1 ENSG00000255921 lnc-CASC1-4 TDGP1 LRMP C12orf77 KRAS CASC1 lnc-BCAT1-6 HE856109
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around KRAS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the KRAS gene promoter:
  • ATF-2
  • c-Jun
  • TBP

Genomic Locations for KRAS Gene

Genomic Locations for KRAS Gene
chr12:25,204,789-25,250,936
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
46,148 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr12:25,357,723-25,403,870
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
46,148 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for KRAS Gene

Genes around KRAS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
KRAS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for KRAS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for KRAS Gene

Proteins for KRAS Gene

  • Protein details for KRAS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P01116-RASK_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    GTPase KRas
    Protein Accession:
    P01116
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K8Z5
    • B0LPF9
    • P01118
    • Q96D10

    Protein attributes for KRAS Gene

    Size:
    189 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21656 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with PHLPP. Interacts (active GTP-bound form preferentially) with RGS14 (By similarity). Interacts (when farnesylated) with PDE6D; this promotes dissociation from the cell membrane (PubMed:23698361). Interacts with SOS1 (PubMed:22431598).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for KRAS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for KRAS Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for KRAS Gene

Post-translational modifications for KRAS Gene

  • Acetylation at Lys-104 prevents interaction with guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs).
  • Ubiquitinated by the BCR(LZTR1) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex at Lys-170 in a non-degradative manner, leading to inhibit Ras signaling by decreasing Ras association with membranes.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys88, Lys117, and Lys128
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for KRAS Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for KRAS Gene

Domains & Families for KRAS Gene

Gene Families for KRAS Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Disease related genes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for KRAS Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • K-ras (A5HC02_HUMAN)
  • K-ras (A5HC03_HUMAN)
  • K-ras (A5HC04_HUMAN)
  • K-ras (A5HC05_HUMAN)
  • K-ras (A5HC06_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P01116

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

RASK_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Ras family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Ras family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with KRAS: view

Function for KRAS Gene

Molecular function for KRAS Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Ras proteins bind GDP/GTP and possess intrinsic GTPase activity. Plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation (PubMed:23698361, PubMed:22711838). Plays a role in promoting oncogenic events by inducing transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in a ZNF304-dependent manner (PubMed:24623306).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Alternates between an inactive form bound to GDP and an active form bound to GTP. Activated by a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) and inactivated by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP). Interaction with SOS1 promotes exchange of bound GDP by GTP.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for KRAS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for KRAS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003924 GTPase activity IEA,IBA 21873635
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12732644
GO:0005525 GTP binding IEA,IBA 21873635
GO:0019002 GMP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KRAS: view

Phenotypes for KRAS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with KRAS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for KRAS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for KRAS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for KRAS:
  • Kras Kras<tm1Mok>
  • Kras Kras<tm1(Hras)Rdl>
  • Kras Kras<tm1Tyj>
  • Kras Kras<tm3Bbd>
  • Kras Kras<tm1Epa>
  • Kras Kras<tm2(Kras)Rdl>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for KRAS Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target KRAS

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for KRAS

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for KRAS Gene

Localization for KRAS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KRAS Gene

Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side. Cytoplasm, cytosol.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for KRAS gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 4
mitochondrion 3
nucleus 3
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for KRAS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA,IEA 23698361
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS,IBA --
GO:0005925 focal adhesion HDA 21423176
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KRAS: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for KRAS Gene

Pathways & Interactions for KRAS Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for KRAS Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 RET signaling
2 Downstream signaling of activated FGFR2
3 IL-2 Pathway
.59
.59
.54
.51
.49
.48
.47
.44
.43
.36
.35
.34
4 Common Cytokine Receptor Gamma-Chain Family Signaling Pathways
5 Endometrial cancer
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with KRAS: view

Pathways by source for KRAS Gene

113 Qiagen pathways for KRAS Gene
  • 14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling
  • Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
  • Activation of PKA through GPCR
  • Agrin Interactions at Neuromuscular Junction
  • Akt Signaling
1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for KRAS Gene
2 GeneTex pathways for KRAS Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for KRAS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for KRAS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000165 MAPK cascade TAS --
GO:0001889 liver development IEA --
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IMP 22065586
GO:0002223 stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KRAS: view

Drugs & Compounds for KRAS Gene

(126) Drugs for KRAS Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ClinicalTrials, ApexBio, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Cetuximab Approved Pharma Antibody, Biomarker, inhibitor EGFR Inhibitors, Therapeutic Antibodies, Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors 846
Panitumumab Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Biomarker, antibody EGFR inhibitor, EGFR Inhibitors, Therapeutic Antibodies, Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors 230
Trametinib Approved Pharma inhibitor, Biomarker MEK 1/2 inhibitor, MEK Inhibitors, Kinase Inhibitors, Mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitors 179
leucovorin Approved Pharma 3801,1351
Fludarabine Approved Pharma DNA synthsis inhibitor 1425,1425

(18) Additional Compounds for KRAS Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(9) ApexBio Compounds for KRAS Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
6H05
AMG-47A destabilizer of the KRAS oncoprotein 882663-88-9
Deltarasin KRAS-PDEδ interaction inhibitor 1440898-61-2
Deltarasin hydrochloride inhibitor of KRAS-PDEδ interaction, potent and selective 1440898-82-7
Kobe0065 Ras inhibitor 436133-68-5
kobe2602 Ras inhibitor 454453-49-7
K-Ras(G12C) inhibitor 12 1469337-95-8
K-Ras(G12C) inhibitor 6 K-Ras (G12C) inhibitor
Salirasib Inhibitor of active Ras protein 162520-00-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with KRAS: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for KRAS Gene

mRNA/cDNA for KRAS Gene

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for KRAS

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for KRAS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for KRAS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
KRAS
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
KRAS

Expression for KRAS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for KRAS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for KRAS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (12.2) and Tlymphocyte (8.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for KRAS Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for KRAS Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of KRAS Gene:

KRAS

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for KRAS Gene:

Hs.505033

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for KRAS Gene

  • Lung(4.8)
  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Intestine(3.8)
  • Thyroid gland(3.3)
  • Liver(3.2)
  • Pancreas(3.1)
  • Blood(2.9)
  • Lymph node(2.9)
  • Gall bladder(2.8)
  • Kidney(2.7)
  • Skin(2.5)
  • Spleen(2.5)
  • Stomach(2.5)
  • Bone marrow(2.3)
  • Heart(2.1)
  • Muscle(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for KRAS Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
Systems:
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • lymphatic
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Regions:
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cerebrospinal fluid
  • cheek
  • chin
  • cranial nerve
  • ear
  • epiglottis
  • eye
  • eyelid
  • face
  • forehead
  • head
  • jaw
  • larynx
  • lip
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • meninges
  • mouth
  • neck
  • nose
  • outer ear
  • scalp
  • skull
  • thyroid
  • tongue
  • tooth
  • vocal cord
Thorax:
  • aorta
  • breast
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • esophagus
  • heart
  • heart valve
  • lung
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
  • trachea
Abdomen:
  • abdominal wall
  • biliary tract
  • gallbladder
  • intestine
  • kidney
  • large intestine
  • liver
  • pancreas
  • small intestine
  • spleen
  • stomach
Pelvis:
  • anus
  • ovary
  • pelvis
  • placenta
  • rectum
  • testicle
  • ureter
  • urethra
  • urinary bladder
  • uterus
Limb:
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • nail
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
General:
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • bone marrow
  • coagulation system
  • hair
  • lymph node
  • lymph vessel
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • red blood cell
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • spinal cord
  • sweat gland
  • vertebrae
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with KRAS: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for KRAS Gene

Orthologs for KRAS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for KRAS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia KRAS 33 32
  • 99.82 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia KRAS 32
  • 98.59 (n)
K-RAS 33
  • 91 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia KRAS 33 32
  • 95.21 (n)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia KRAS 33
  • 91 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia KRAS 33
  • 91 (a)
OneToMany
-- 33
  • 90 (a)
OneToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Kras 32
  • 87.77 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Kras 17 33 32
  • 87.06 (n)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves KRAS 33 32
  • 83.69 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 33
  • 89 (a)
OneToMany
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100485959 32
  • 80.95 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.24980 32
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii kras 33 32
  • 74.82 (n)
OneToOne
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Ras85D 33 32
  • 70.71 (n)
OneToMany
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002219 32
  • 69.7 (n)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea let-60 33 32
  • 65.58 (n)
OneToMany