Aliases for KNG1 Gene
External Ids for KNG1 Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for KNG1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for KNG1 Gene
This gene uses alternative splicing to generate two different proteins- high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK) and low molecular weight kininogen (LMWK). HMWK is essential for blood coagulation and assembly of the kallikrein-kinin system. Also, bradykinin, a peptide causing numerous physiological effects, is released from HMWK. Bradykinin also functions as an antimicrobial peptide with antibacterial and antifungal activity. In contrast to HMWK, LMWK is not involved in blood coagulation. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. SARS-COV-2 infection depletes ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2), which increases levels of des-Arg(9)-bradykinin, a bioactive metabolite of bradykinin that is associated with lung injury and inflammation. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2020]
GeneCards Summary for KNG1 Gene
KNG1 (Kininogen 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with KNG1 include High Molecular Weight Kininogen Deficiency and Angioedema. Among its related pathways are RET signaling and Formation of Fibrin Clot (Clotting Cascade). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include signaling receptor binding and cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity. An important paralog of this gene is HRG.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for KNG1 Gene
(1) Kininogens are inhibitors of thiol proteases; (2) HMW-kininogen plays an important role in blood coagulation by helping to position optimally prekallikrein and factor XI next to factor XII; (3) HMW-kininogen inhibits the thrombin- and plasmin-induced aggregation of thrombocytes; (4) the active peptide bradykinin that is released from HMW-kininogen shows a variety of physiological effects: (4A) influence in smooth muscle contraction, (4B) induction of hypotension, (4C) natriuresis and diuresis, (4D) decrease in blood glucose level, (4E) it is a mediator of inflammation and causes (4E1) increase in vascular permeability, (4E2) stimulation of nociceptors (4E3) release of other mediators of inflammation (e.g. prostaglandins), (4F) it has a cardioprotective effect (directly via bradykinin action, indirectly via endothelium-derived relaxing factor action); (5) LMW-kininogen inhibits the aggregation of thrombocytes; (6) LMW-kininogen is in contrast to HMW-kininogen not involved in blood clotting.
Bradykinin and related kinins are a family of small peptides which act as mediators of pain and inflammation. They exert a variety of biological effects on the endothelium and peripheral circulation through their action on two bradykinin receptor subtypes: B1 and B2.