This gene encodes a member of the grandular kallikrein protein family. Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases that are clustered on chromosome 19. Members of this family are involved in a diverse array of biological functions. The protein encoded by this gene is a highly active trypsin-like serine protease that selectively cleaves at arginine residues. This protein is p... See more...

Aliases for KLK2 Gene

Aliases for KLK2 Gene

  • Kallikrein Related Peptidase 2 2 3 5
  • Kallikrein 2, Prostatic 2 3
  • Glandular Kallikrein-1 3 4
  • Tissue Kallikrein-2 3 4
  • Kallikrein-2 3 4
  • HGK-1 3 4
  • Glandular Kallikrein 2 3
  • EC 3.4.21.35 4
  • EC 3.4.21 52
  • KLK2A2 3
  • HK2 3

External Ids for KLK2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for KLK2 Gene

  • GC19P052005
  • GC19P051737
  • GC19P056052
  • GC19P056068
  • GC19P051376
  • GC19P047711
  • GC19P051369

Summaries for KLK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for KLK2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the grandular kallikrein protein family. Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases that are clustered on chromosome 19. Members of this family are involved in a diverse array of biological functions. The protein encoded by this gene is a highly active trypsin-like serine protease that selectively cleaves at arginine residues. This protein is primarily expressed in prostatic tissue and is responsible for cleaving pro-prostate-specific antigen into its enzymatically active form. This gene is highly expressed in prostate tumor cells and may be a prognostic maker for prostate cancer risk. Alternate splicing results in both coding and non-coding transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

GeneCards Summary for KLK2 Gene

KLK2 (Kallikrein Related Peptidase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with KLK2 include Prostate Cancer and Prostate Disease. Among its related pathways are Activated PKN1 stimulates transcription of AR (androgen receptor) regulated genes KLK2 and KLK3 and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include serine-type endopeptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is KLK3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for KLK2 Gene

  • Glandular kallikreins cleave Met-Lys and Arg-Ser bonds in kininogen to release Lys-bradykinin.

Gene Wiki entry for KLK2 Gene

Additional gene information for KLK2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for KLK2 Gene

Genomics for KLK2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for KLK2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for KLK2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH19J050873 Promoter/Enhancer 0.7 EPDnew dbSUPER 500.4 +11.9 11852 0.1 ZFHX2 EZH2 EGR2 HSALNG0127146 lnc-KLK15-2 KLK2 KLK3
GH19J050875 Promoter/Enhancer 0.5 EPDnew dbSUPER 511.7 +11.7 11712 0.1 KLK2 HSALNG0127146 lnc-KLK15-2 KLK3
GH19J050861 Enhancer 0.3 dbSUPER 508.6 +0.7 665 2 ZNF316 KLK2 lnc-KLK3-2 KLK15 KLK1 LINC01869 KLK4 C19orf48 SNORD88C SNORD88A SNORD88B
GH19J050837 Promoter/Enhancer 1.3 EPDnew Ensembl dbSUPER 15.9 -24.1 -24068 1 ATF2 RBM25 BCL11A BCOR NR2F1 KLF17 ZNF768 GLIS1 ZMYM3 ZBTB21 KLK15 KLK2 C19orf48 LINC01869 SNORD88C SNORD88A SNORD88B ENSG00000267968 LOC105372441 RF00017-3058
GH19J050835 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 FANTOM5 ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 11.3 -25.4 -25438 1.2 NRF1 USF1 PHF8 ZNF10 POLR2A ZBTB10 ZNF423 ZBTB26 REST CTBP1 KLK15 ZNF175 ENSG00000268047 NUP62 PTOV1-AS2 C19orf48 SNORD88C LINC01869 KLK2 SNORD88A
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around KLK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for KLK2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the KLK2 gene promoter:
  • NF-kappaB
  • NF-kappaB1

Genomic Locations for KLK2 Gene

Genomic Locations for KLK2 Gene
chr19:50,861,568-50,880,567
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
19,000 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr19:51,364,824-51,383,823
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
19,000 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for KLK2 Gene

Genes around KLK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
KLK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for KLK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for KLK2 Gene

Proteins for KLK2 Gene

  • Protein details for KLK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P20151-KLK2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Kallikrein-2
    Protein Accession:
    P20151
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DU93
    • B4DUB0
    • F5H8L3
    • Q15946
    • Q9UJZ9

    Protein attributes for KLK2 Gene

    Size:
    261 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    28671 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    Miscellaneous:
    • [Isoform 3]: May be produced at very low levels due to a premature stop codon in the mRNA, leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAD13817.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for KLK2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for KLK2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for KLK2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for KLK2 Gene

P20151:
  • GVLQGIT
  • VLTAAHC
  • GDSGGPL
  • PWQVAVY
  • CGGVLVH
  • GGWECEKHS
  • SQPWQVA
  • SGGPLVC
  • DLMLLRLSEPA
  • WVLTAAH

Post-translational modifications for KLK2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn102
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for KLK2 Gene

Gene Families for KLK2 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for KLK2 Gene

Blocks:
  • Serine protease, trypsin family
  • Chymotrypsin serine protease family (S1) signature
InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for KLK2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Tissue kallikrein-2 (KLK2_HUMAN)
  • Kallikrein 2 isoform 6 preproprotein (Q6T774_HUMAN)
  • Kallikrein 2 isoform 5 preproprotein (Q6T775_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P20151

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

KLK2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family. Kallikrein subfamily.
Family:
  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family. Kallikrein subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with KLK2: view

Function for KLK2 Gene

Molecular function for KLK2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Glandular kallikreins cleave Met-Lys and Arg-Ser bonds in kininogen to release Lys-bradykinin.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=Preferential cleavage of Arg- -Xaa bonds in small molecule substrates. Highly selective action to release kallidin (lysyl-bradykinin) from kininogen involves hydrolysis of Met- -Xaa or Leu- -Xaa.; EC=3.4.21.35;.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
kallikrein 2,glandular,expressed in the prostate,complexing with protease inhibitor 6 in prostate cancer tissue

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for KLK2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for KLK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for KLK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004252 serine-type endopeptidase activity IDA 9042371
GO:0008233 peptidase activity IEA --
GO:0008236 serine-type peptidase activity IEA --
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KLK2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with KLK2: view

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for KLK2 Gene

Localization for KLK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for KLK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
nucleus 2
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for KLK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0030141 secretory granule IBA 21873635
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 23533145
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KLK2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for KLK2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for KLK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with KLK2: view

Pathways by source for KLK2 Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for KLK2 Gene
  • Cell adhesion_ECM remodeling
3 Qiagen pathways for KLK2 Gene
  • Blood Coagulation Cascade
  • Intrinsic Prothrombin Activation Pathway
  • MSP-RON Signaling

SIGNOR curated interactions for KLK2 Gene

Activates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for KLK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003073 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure IBA 21873635
GO:0006508 proteolysis IEA --
GO:0022617 extracellular matrix disassembly TAS --
GO:0031638 zymogen activation IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KLK2: view

Drugs & Compounds for KLK2 Gene

(4) Drugs for KLK2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(2) Additional Compounds for KLK2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with KLK2: view

Transcripts for KLK2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for KLK2 Gene

4 REFSEQ mRNAs :
30 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
23 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for KLK2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d · 8e ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11a ·
SP1: - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - -
SP5: - - - -
SP6: - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - -
SP10: - - - - - -
SP11: - - - - -
SP12: - - - - - - - - - -
SP13: - - - -
SP14:
SP15:
SP16: -
SP17:

ExUns: 11b · 11c · 11d
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:
SP14:
SP15:
SP16:
SP17:

Relevant External Links for KLK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
KLK2

Expression for KLK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for KLK2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for KLK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Prostate (x52.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for KLK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Prostate (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for KLK2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for KLK2 Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for KLK2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for KLK2 Gene:

Hs.515560
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with KLK2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt , Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for KLK2 Gene

Orthologs for KLK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for KLK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia KLK2 31 30
  • 99.36 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia KLK1 31
  • 66 (a)
OneToMany
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia KLK2 31
  • 59 (a)
OneToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Klk1b3 31
  • 59 (a)
ManyToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 31
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG17239 32
  • 36 (a)
Species where no ortholog for KLK2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for KLK2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for KLK2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for KLK2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for KLK2: view image

Paralogs for KLK2 Gene

Paralogs for KLK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with KLK2: view

Variants for KLK2 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for KLK2 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 19 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs198977 - p.Arg250Trp
rs60268688 - p.Asp255Ala
rs6072 - p.Val18Leu

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for KLK2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for KLK2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1059e212 CNV loss 25503493
esv1010987 CNV loss 20482838
esv2763208 CNV gain 21179565
esv3644659 CNV gain 21293372
nsv1140251 OTHER inversion 24896259
nsv2531 CNV deletion 18451855

Variation tolerance for KLK2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 72% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.41; 54.43% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for KLK2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
KLK2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KLK2 Gene

Disorders for KLK2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for KLK2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
prostate cancer
  • prostate cancer, somatic
prostate disease
  • prostate diseases
prostatic hyperplasia, benign
  • bph
suppression of tumorigenicity 12
  • st12
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search KLK2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for KLK2

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with KLK2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for KLK2 Gene

Publications for KLK2 Gene

  1. Blood biomarker levels to aid discovery of cancer-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms: kallikreins and prostate cancer. (PMID: 20424135) Klein RJ … Lilja H (Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.) 2010) 3 23 41 54
  2. Candidate gene approach evaluates association between innate immunity genes and breast cancer risk in Korean women. (PMID: 19372141) Lee JY … Kang D (Carcinogenesis 2009) 3 23 41 54
  3. Tagging SNPs in the kallikrein genes 3 and 2 on 19q13 and their associations with prostate cancer in men of European origin. (PMID: 17593395) Pal P … Deka R (Human genetics 2007) 3 23 41 54
  4. Variants of the hK2 protein gene (KLK2) are associated with serum hK2 levels and predict the presence of prostate cancer at biopsy. (PMID: 17085659) Nam RK … Narod SA (Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2006) 3 23 41 54
  5. Single nucleotide polymorphism of the human kallikrein-2 gene highly correlates with serum human kallikrein-2 levels and in combination enhances prostate cancer detection. (PMID: 12805332) Nam RK … Narod SA (Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2003) 3 23 41 54

Products for KLK2 Gene

Sources for KLK2 Gene