IRAK2 encodes the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 2, one of two putative serine/threonine kinases that become associated with the interleukin-1 receptor (IL1R) upon stimulation. IRAK2 is reported to participate in the IL1-induced upregulation of NF-kappaB. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] See more...

Aliases for IRAK2 Gene

Aliases for IRAK2 Gene

  • Interleukin 1 Receptor Associated Kinase 2 2 3 5
  • Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase-Like 2 3 4
  • IRAK-2 3 4
  • IRAK2 5

External Ids for IRAK2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for IRAK2 Gene

  • GC03P010135
  • GC03P010198
  • GC03P010181
  • GC03P010206
  • GC03P010142
  • GC03P010168
  • GC03P010172
  • GC03P010174
  • GC03P010190
  • GC03P010204
  • GC03P010169
  • GC03P010210
  • GC03P010226

Summaries for IRAK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for IRAK2 Gene

  • IRAK2 encodes the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 2, one of two putative serine/threonine kinases that become associated with the interleukin-1 receptor (IL1R) upon stimulation. IRAK2 is reported to participate in the IL1-induced upregulation of NF-kappaB. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for IRAK2 Gene

IRAK2 (Interleukin 1 Receptor Associated Kinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Toll-Like receptor Signaling Pathways and Activated TLR4 signalling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is IRAK1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for IRAK2 Gene

  • Binds to the IL-1 type I receptor following IL-1 engagement, triggering intracellular signaling cascades leading to transcriptional up-regulation and mRNA stabilization.

Tocris Summary for IRAK2 Gene

  • The IRAKs (Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases) are serine-threonine kinases, EC 2.7.11.1, that are essential regulators of IL-1R and TLR-mediated signaling. Four IRAK isoforms have been identified to date, IRAK1, IRAK2, IRAK3 (IRAK-M) and IRAK4.

Gene Wiki entry for IRAK2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for IRAK2 Gene

Genomics for IRAK2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for IRAK2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH03J010164 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 250.7 +0.6 582 2.6 ZNF600 ZMYM3 POLR2A ZNF223 ZIC2 YY1 MXD4 CTCF ZNF592 SIN3A IRAK2 VHL HSALNG0024092 TATDN2
GH03J010197 Enhancer 1.3 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 60.3 +34.5 34477 3 BCLAF1 ZNF592 BCL11A CEBPB MAX TBP EBF1 TAF1 BHLHE40 BATF IRAK2 GHRL VHL GHRLOS CAMK1 TATDN2 ARPC4 HSALNG0024093 HSALNG0024095 HSALNG0024094
GH03J010188 Enhancer 1.5 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 48.5 +28.3 28258 8.8 BCLAF1 SP1 MYC NCOR1 IKZF1 ZNF600 JUND ZNF592 CEBPA ZNF223 HSALNG0024093 BRPF1 SETD5 IRAK2 GHRLOS LINC00852 TATDN2 FANCD2 BRK1 TTLL3
GH03J010201 Enhancer 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 24.2 +39.6 39602 6.7 SSRP1 JUND ZMYM3 CEBPA ATF3 YY1 CEBPB FOXA1 ZFP64 HOMEZ TATDN2 IRAK2 VHL EMC3-AS1 GHRLOS ARPC4 SETD5 FANCD2OS ENSG00000269982 GHRL
GH03J010185 Enhancer 0.9 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 34.3 +21.8 21757 1.9 MYNN POLR2A RFX1 HDAC1 SMARCE1 KDM1A SPI1 ZNF239 SOX6 HDAC2 HSALNG0024092 IRAK2 GHRLOS TATDN2 GHRL FANCD2OS LINC00852 VHL
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around IRAK2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for IRAK2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the IRAK2 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • ATF
  • ATF-2
  • C/EBPalpha
  • Hlf
  • MyoD
  • NF-kappaB
  • NF-kappaB1
  • NF-kappaB2

Genomic Locations for IRAK2 Gene

Latest Assembly
chr3:10,164,919-10,243,745
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
78,827 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Previous Assembly
chr3:10,206,603-10,285,429
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
78,827 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

chr3:10,206,549-10,285,427
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
78,879 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for IRAK2 Gene

Genes around IRAK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
IRAK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for IRAK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for IRAK2 Gene

Proteins for IRAK2 Gene

  • Protein details for IRAK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O43187-IRAK2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-like 2
    Protein Accession:
    O43187
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DQZ6
    • Q08AG6
    • Q5K546

    Protein attributes for IRAK2 Gene

    Size:
    625 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    69433 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with MYD88. IL-1 stimulation leads to the formation of a signaling complex which dissociates from the IL-1 receptor following the binding of PELI1.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for IRAK2 Gene

neXtProt entry for IRAK2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for IRAK2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for IRAK2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibodies for research

  • Abcam antibodies for IRAK2

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for IRAK2 Gene

Domains & Families for IRAK2 Gene

Gene Families for IRAK2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for IRAK2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-like 2 (IRAK2_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O43187

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

IRAK2_HUMAN :
  • The protein kinase domain is predicted to be catalytically inactive.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family. Pelle subfamily.
Domain:
  • The protein kinase domain is predicted to be catalytically inactive.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family. Pelle subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with IRAK2: view

Function for IRAK2 Gene

Molecular function for IRAK2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Binds to the IL-1 type I receptor following IL-1 engagement, triggering intracellular signaling cascades leading to transcriptional up-regulation and mRNA stabilization.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for IRAK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for IRAK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IEA --
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity IBA 21873635
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 11544529
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IRAK2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with IRAK2: view

Animal Models for IRAK2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for IRAK2:

miRNA for IRAK2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target IRAK2

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for IRAK2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for IRAK2 Gene

Localization for IRAK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for IRAK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 4
nucleus 4
endosome 4
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for IRAK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IBA 21873635
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA 21873635
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0010008 endosome membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IRAK2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for IRAK2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for IRAK2 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for IRAK2 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Activated TLR4 signalling
2 Toll Comparative Pathway
.61
.61
.46
.39
.34
3 Bacterial infections in CF airways
.78
.78
.46
.43
4 Toll-Like receptor Signaling Pathways
.42
5 TRAF Pathway
.42
.41
.33
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with IRAK2: view

Pathways by source for IRAK2 Gene

1 Sino Biological pathway for IRAK2 Gene
2 KEGG pathways for IRAK2 Gene
9 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathways for IRAK2 Gene
  • Apoptosis and survival Anti-apoptotic TNFs/NF-kB/Bcl-2 pathway
  • Bacterial infections in CF airways
  • Development NOTCH1-mediated pathway for NF-KB activity modulation
  • IL-1 beta-dependent CFTR expression
  • Immune response Bacterial infections in normal airways
12 Qiagen pathways for IRAK2 Gene
  • 14-3-3 Induced Apoptosis
  • IL-1 Pathway
  • iNOS Signaling
  • MAPK Signaling
  • NF-KappaB (p50-p65) Pathway
1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for IRAK2 Gene
1 GeneTex pathway for IRAK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for IRAK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000187 activation of MAPK activity TAS --
GO:0001959 regulation of cytokine-mediated signaling pathway IMP 10383454
GO:0002224 toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0002755 MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS 10383454
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation TAS,IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IRAK2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for IRAK2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for IRAK2 Gene

(4) Drugs for IRAK2 Gene - From: ApexBio and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
ATP Investigational Nutra 0
IRAK inhibitor 2 Pharma 0
IRAK inhibitor 3 Pharma 0
IRAK inhibitor 4 Pharma IRAK inhibitor 0

(1) Additional Compounds for IRAK2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine 5'-diphosphate
  • ADENOSINE-5'-diphosphATE
  • H3ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphate
58-64-0

(3) ApexBio Compounds for IRAK2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
IRAK inhibitor 2 928333-30-6
IRAK inhibitor 3 1012343-93-9
IRAK inhibitor 4 IRAK inhibitor 1012104-68-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with IRAK2: view

Drug products for research

Transcripts for IRAK2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for IRAK2 Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
8 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
1 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for IRAK2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for IRAK2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for IRAK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
IRAK2

Expression for IRAK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for IRAK2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for IRAK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Muscle - Skeletal (x4.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for IRAK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Serum (25.7), Breast (21.6), and Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (18.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for IRAK2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for IRAK2 Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for IRAK2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for IRAK2 Gene:

Hs.449207

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for IRAK2 Gene:

O43187-IRAK2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in spleen, thymus, prostate, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, pancreas and peripheral blood leukocytes.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for IRAK2 Gene

  • Heart(4.4)
  • Liver(4.4)
  • Bone marrow(2.1)
  • Lymph node(2.1)
  • Kidney(2.1)
  • Spleen(2.1)
  • Nervous system(2)
  • Lung(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with IRAK2: view

Primer products for research

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for IRAK2 Gene

Orthologs for IRAK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for IRAK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia IRAK2 29 30
  • 97.96 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia IRAK2 29
  • 85.39 (n)
VHL 30
  • 81 (a)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia IRAK2 29 30
  • 84.81 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Irak2 29
  • 77.05 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Irak2 29 16 30
  • 76.34 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia IRAK2 30
  • 55 (a)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia IRAK2 30
  • 50 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves IRAK2 29 30
  • 58.08 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia IRAK2 30
  • 39 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia irak2 29
  • 47.31 (n)
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta pll 30
  • 25 (a)
OneToMany
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pik-1 30
  • 22 (a)
OneToMany
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 30
  • 30 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for IRAK2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for IRAK2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for IRAK2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for IRAK2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for IRAK2: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for IRAK2

Paralogs for IRAK2 Gene

Paralogs for IRAK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with IRAK2: view

Variants for IRAK2 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for IRAK2 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 03 pos Variation AA Info Type
VAR_041346 A lung adenocarcinoma sample p.Ser249Leu
VAR_041347 A lung adenocarcinoma sample p.Pro421Thr
rs11465864 -- p.Ser47Tyr
rs11465927 -- p.Leu439Val
rs11465930 -- p.Asp574His

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for IRAK2 Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for IRAK2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv762e201 CNV deletion 23290073
dgv848e199 CNV deletion 23128226
esv1307821 CNV insertion 17803354
esv23190 CNV loss 19812545
esv2662021 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2664847 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2674709 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2724896 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3561455 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3568610 CNV loss 25503493
esv3595262 CNV gain 21293372
esv3595263 CNV loss 21293372
esv3595264 CNV loss 21293372
esv3595265 CNV loss 21293372
esv3595266 CNV loss 21293372
esv3595267 CNV loss 21293372
esv3595268 CNV loss 21293372
esv3595269 CNV loss 21293372
esv3595270 CNV loss 21293372
esv3595271 CNV loss 21293372
esv3595272 CNV loss 21293372
esv4117 OTHER complex 18987735
esv6737 CNV loss 19470904
nsv1073204 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1109492 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1121603 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1123623 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv436362 CNV deletion 17901297
nsv436398 CNV deletion 17901297
nsv436869 CNV insertion 17901297
nsv437322 CNV loss 16327808
nsv522516 CNV gain 19592680
nsv523288 CNV loss 19592680
nsv524674 CNV loss 19592680
nsv589649 CNV loss 21841781
nsv821984 CNV loss 20364138
nsv821985 CNV loss 20364138

Variation tolerance for IRAK2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 96.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 11.55; 93.01% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for IRAK2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
IRAK2
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
IRAK2
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
IRAK2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for IRAK2 Gene

Disorders for IRAK2 Gene

Additional Disease Information for IRAK2

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Atlas
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform

No disorders were found for IRAK2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for IRAK2 Gene

Publications for IRAK2 Gene

  1. IRAK (Pelle) family member IRAK-2 and MyD88 as proximal mediators of IL-1 signaling. (PMID: 9374458) Muzio M … Dixit VM (Science (New York, N.Y.) 1997) 2 3 4 22
  2. IRAK-M is a novel member of the Pelle/interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family. (PMID: 10383454) Wesche H … Cao Z (The Journal of biological chemistry 1999) 3 4 22
  3. Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and patients response to dendritic cell-based HIV immuno-treatment. (PMID: 20056178) Segat L … Crovella S (Vaccine 2010) 3 40
  4. Helical assembly in the MyD88-IRAK4-IRAK2 complex in TLR/IL-1R signalling. (PMID: 20485341) Lin SC … Wu H (Nature 2010) 3 4
  5. Risk of meningioma and common variation in genes related to innate immunity. (PMID: 20406964) Rajaraman P … Inskip PD (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2010) 3 40

Products for IRAK2 Gene

Sources for IRAK2 Gene