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Aliases for INSL4 Gene

Aliases for INSL4 Gene

  • Insulin Like 4 2 3 5
  • Insulin-Like 4 (Placenta) 2 3
  • Insulin-Like Peptide 4 3 4
  • EPIL 3 4
  • Early Placenta Insulin-Like Peptide (EPIL) 3
  • Early Placenta Insulin-Like Peptide 3

External Ids for INSL4 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for INSL4 Gene

  • GC09P005385
  • GC09P005212
  • GC09P005221
  • GC09P005266

Summaries for INSL4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for INSL4 Gene

  • INSL4 encodes the insulin-like 4 protein, a member of the insulin superfamily. INSL4 encodes a precursor that undergoes post-translational cleavage to produce 3 polypeptide chains, A-C, that form tertiary structures composed of either all three chains, or just the A and B chains. Expression of INSL4 products occurs within the early placental cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for INSL4 Gene

INSL4 (Insulin Like 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include receptor binding and insulin-like growth factor receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for INSL4 Gene

  • May play an important role in trophoblast development and in the regulation of bone formation.

Gene Wiki entry for INSL4 Gene

Additional gene information for INSL4 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for INSL4 Gene

Genomics for INSL4 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for INSL4 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for INSL4 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH09I005231 Promoter 0.8 EPDnew 550.8 0.0 -19 0.1 SP1 POLR2A SIN3A REST FOSL2 INSL4 ENSG00000237553
GH09I005268 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 11.8 +37.9 37878 2.5 NCOA3 USF1 JUN DPF2 CEBPG RFX5 FOXA1 TEAD3 SP1 JUND INSL4 HMGN2P31 RLN2 GC09M005299
GH09I005565 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 9.5 +335.1 335074 2.1 HDGF RB1 BACH1 PAX8 EBF1 KLF5 RELA ZNF143 ATF7 ETV6 CD274 PDCD1LG2 PLGRKT INSL4 GC09M005559 GC09P005527
GH09I005186 Enhancer 0.6 ENCODE 10.8 -44.8 -44803 0.2 SCRT1 CTCF ZNF654 REST RAD21 ZNF664 GATA3 CTBP1 SCRT2 ZNF143 INSL6 INSL4 PLGRKT ENSG00000237553
GH09I005425 Enhancer 0.6 ENCODE 9.7 +193.8 193797 0.1 SMARCA5 CTCF ZNF654 RB1 ZNF189 TRIM22 ZMYM3 REST RAD21 ZNF143 RLN1 INSL4 GC09M005429 RNF152P1 PLGRKT
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around INSL4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the INSL4 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for INSL4 Gene

Genomic Locations for INSL4 Gene
3,886 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for INSL4 Gene

Genes around INSL4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
INSL4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for INSL4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for INSL4 Gene

Proteins for INSL4 Gene

  • Protein details for INSL4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Early placenta insulin-like peptide
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K678
    • Q5W127

    Protein attributes for INSL4 Gene

    139 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    15445 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for INSL4 Gene

Post-translational modifications for INSL4 Gene

No Post-translational modifications

Other Protein References for INSL4 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for INSL4 Gene

Domains & Families for INSL4 Gene

Gene Families for INSL4 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for INSL4 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for INSL4 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the insulin family.
  • Belongs to the insulin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with INSL4: view

Function for INSL4 Gene

Molecular function for INSL4 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
insulin-like 4,growth factor expressed in placenta and uterus
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May play an important role in trophoblast development and in the regulation of bone formation.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for INSL4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for INSL4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005102 receptor binding TAS 8702754
GO:0005159 insulin-like growth factor receptor binding TAS 8666396
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with INSL4: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with INSL4: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for INSL4 Gene

Localization for INSL4 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for INSL4 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for INSL4 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for INSL4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space TAS 8702754
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with INSL4: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for INSL4 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for INSL4 Gene

SuperPathways for INSL4 Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for INSL4 Gene

Selected Interacting proteins: Q14641-INSL4_HUMAN for INSL4 Gene via IID

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for INSL4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 8702754
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling TAS 8702754
GO:0007275 multicellular organism development TAS 8702754
GO:0007565 female pregnancy TAS 8702754
GO:0008283 cell proliferation TAS 8702754
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with INSL4: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for INSL4 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for INSL4 Gene

(1) Drugs for INSL4 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with INSL4: view

Transcripts for INSL4 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for INSL4 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(47) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for INSL4 Gene

Insulin-like 4 (placenta):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for INSL4 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for INSL4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for INSL4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for INSL4 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of INSL4 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for INSL4 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for INSL4 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in placenta, uterus and in fetal perichondrium. Expression levels were increased in both early placentas and molar pregnancies and were reduced in choriocarcinoma cells.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with INSL4: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners , Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for INSL4 Gene

Orthologs for INSL4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of human and chimp.

Orthologs for INSL4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia INSL4 33 34
  • 98.56 (n)
Species where no ortholog for INSL4 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • cow (Bos Taurus)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • mouse (Mus musculus)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for INSL4 Gene

Gene Tree for INSL4 (if available)
Gene Tree for INSL4 (if available)

Paralogs for INSL4 Gene Pseudogenes for INSL4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with INSL4: view

No data available for Paralogs for INSL4 Gene

Variants for INSL4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for INSL4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000154028 -- 5,230,543(+) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000910067 -- 5,233,043(+) A/G intron_variant
rs1000935491 -- 5,229,450(+) G/C upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001038738 -- 5,229,828(+) T/A/C upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001449884 -- 5,229,604(+) C/T upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for INSL4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv831495 CNV loss 17160897
nsv613178 CNV gain 21841781
nsv527495 CNV gain 19592680
nsv525777 CNV loss 19592680
nsv466100 CNV gain 19166990
esv3891538 CNV gain 25118596

Variation tolerance for INSL4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 78.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.43; 28.01% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for INSL4 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for INSL4 Gene

Disorders for INSL4 Gene

Additional Disease Information for INSL4

No disorders were found for INSL4 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for INSL4 Gene

Publications for INSL4 Gene

  1. Cloning of a new member of the insulin gene superfamily (INSL4) expressed in human placenta. (PMID: 8666396) Chassin D … Bellet D (Genomics 1995) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Transcriptional expression of genes involved in cell invasion and migration by normal and tumoral trophoblast cells. (PMID: 12414911) Janneau JL … Bellet D (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2002) 3 4 22 58
  3. Insulin-like 4 (INSL4) gene expression in human embryonic and trophoblastic tissues. (PMID: 9740319) Laurent A … Vidaud M (Molecular reproduction and development 1998) 3 4 22 58
  4. The INSL4 gene maps close to WI-5527 at 9p24.1-->p23.3 clustered with two relaxin genes and outside the critical region for the monosomy 9p syndrome. (PMID: 9730618) Veitia R … McElreavey K (Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1998) 2 3 22 58
  5. Identification of pro-EPIL and EPIL peptides translated from insulin-like 4 (INSL4) mRNA in human placenta. (PMID: 9284764) Bellet D … Bidart JM (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 1997) 3 4 22 58

Products for INSL4 Gene

Sources for INSL4 Gene

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