The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted cytokine that is important for the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes. The receptor of this cytokine is a heterotrimeric protein complex whose gamma chain is also shared by interleukin 4 (IL4) and interleukin 7 (IL7). The expression of this gene in mature thymocytes is monoallelic, which represents an unusual regulatory mode for ... See more...

Aliases for IL2 Gene

Aliases for IL2 Gene

  • Interleukin 2 2 3 5
  • IL-2 2 3 4
  • TCGF 2 3 4
  • T Cell Growth Factor 2 3
  • Interleukin-2 3 4
  • Aldesleukin 3 4
  • Involved In Regulation Of T-Cell Clonal Expansion 3
  • T-Cell Growth Factor 4
  • Lymphokine 3
  • IL2 5

External Ids for IL2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for IL2 Gene

  • GC04M124285
  • GC04M123652
  • GC04M123765
  • GC04M123831
  • GC04M123730
  • GC04M123592
  • GC04M123372
  • GC04M119099

Summaries for IL2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for IL2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted cytokine that is important for the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes. The receptor of this cytokine is a heterotrimeric protein complex whose gamma chain is also shared by interleukin 4 (IL4) and interleukin 7 (IL7). The expression of this gene in mature thymocytes is monoallelic, which represents an unusual regulatory mode for controlling the precise expression of a single gene. The targeted disruption of a similar gene in mice leads to ulcerative colitis-like disease, which suggests an essential role of this gene in the immune response to antigenic stimuli. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for IL2 Gene

IL2 (Interleukin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with IL2 include Capillary Leak Syndrome and Tropical Spastic Paraparesis. Among its related pathways are RET signaling and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include carbohydrate binding and growth factor activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for IL2 Gene

  • Produced by T-cells in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation, this protein is required for T-cell proliferation and other activities crucial to regulation of the immune response. Can stimulate B-cells, monocytes, lymphokine-activated killer cells, natural killer cells, and glioma cells.

Tocris Summary for IL2 Gene

  • Cytokines are proteinaceous signaling compounds that are major mediators of the immune response. They control many different cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation and cell survival/apoptosis but are also involved in several pathophysiological processes.

Gene Wiki entry for IL2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for IL2 Gene

Genomics for IL2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for IL2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH04J122458 Promoter/Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 600.7 -2.0 -1976 1 HMBOX1 MNT IRF2 MAX ZNF148 IL2 piR-57195-166 IL21
GH04J122456 Promoter 0.3 EPDnew 600.7 +0.2 213 0.1 IL2 lnc-IL21-2 ADAD1
GH04J122150 Promoter/Enhancer 2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 6.3 +304.7 304660 3.9 SP1 CREB1 TEAD4 PRDM10 ZNF629 NFKBIZ POLR2A BACH1 FOXA1 ZIC2 KIAA1109 lnc-TRPC3-4 lnc-KIAA1109-1 IL2 IL21 piR-34822-252 TRPC3
GH04J122503 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl 11 -46.6 -46576 0.6 SOX6 ZNF589 ETV1 ATF1 MEIS2 TEAD4 IL2 piR-32461-132 IL21-AS1 IL21
GH04J122531 Enhancer 0.3 Ensembl 11.1 -75.0 -74976 1 NFE2 IL2 IL21-AS1 piR-32461-132 IL21
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around IL2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for IL2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the IL2 gene promoter:
  • AML1a

Genomic Locations for IL2 Gene

Genomic Locations for IL2 Gene
chr4:122,451,470-122,456,725
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
5,256 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr4:123,372,625-123,377,880
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
5,256 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for IL2 Gene

Genes around IL2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
IL2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for IL2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for IL2 Gene

Proteins for IL2 Gene

  • Protein details for IL2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P60568-IL2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Interleukin-2
    Protein Accession:
    P60568
    Secondary Accessions:
    • P01585

    Protein attributes for IL2 Gene

    Size:
    153 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    17628 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAA59140.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for IL2 Gene

neXtProt entry for IL2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for IL2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Thr23
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect

Other Protein References for IL2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for IL2

Protein Products

  • Abcam proteins for IL2

Assay Products

  • Abcam assays for IL2

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for IL2 Gene

Domains & Families for IL2 Gene

Gene Families for IL2 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Candidate cardiovascular disease genes
  • Disease related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for IL2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for IL2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • T-cell growth factor (IL2_HUMAN)
  • IL-2 protein (O95974_HUMAN)
  • Interleukin-2 (Q0GK43_HUMAN)
  • Interleukin 2 (Q13169_HUMAN)
  • IL-2 protein (Q16334_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P60568

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

IL2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the IL-2 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the IL-2 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with IL2: view

Function for IL2 Gene

Molecular function for IL2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Produced by T-cells in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation, this protein is required for T-cell proliferation and other activities crucial to regulation of the immune response. Can stimulate B-cells, monocytes, lymphokine-activated killer cells, natural killer cells, and glioma cells.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
interleukin 2,30-35kDa,involved in activation and proliferation of T cell

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for IL2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for IL2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005125 cytokine activity IDA 1830926
GO:0005134 interleukin-2 receptor binding IDA,TAS 3925347
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16477002
GO:0008083 growth factor activity TAS 8476561
GO:0019209 kinase activator activity TAS 8476561
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IL2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with IL2: view

Animal Models for IL2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for IL2:
  • Il2 Il2<tm1Hor>
  • Il2 Il2<tm1Hua>

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for IL2

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for IL2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for IL2 Gene

Localization for IL2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for IL2 Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for IL2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 3
cytoskeleton 3
mitochondrion 3
nucleus 3
endoplasmic reticulum 3
endosome 3
cytosol 3
lysosome 3
peroxisome 2
golgi apparatus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for IL2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space TAS 6608729
GO:0005623 cell IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IL2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for IL2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for IL2 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for IL2 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 RET signaling
2 Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
.85
.85
.84
.84
.74
.72
.66
.65
.64
.62
.61
.60
.57
.57
3 PEDF Induced Signaling
.94
.94
.73
.71
.62
.61
.57
.51
.47
.46
.43
4 Allograft rejection
.39
5 GPCR Pathway
.73
.73
.62
.59
.58
.58
.55
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with IL2: view

Pathways by source for IL2 Gene

6 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathways for IL2 Gene
  • Apoptosis and survival Lymphotoxin-beta receptor signaling
  • Immune response CD16 signaling in NK cells
  • Immune response Function of MEF2 in T lymphocytes
  • Immune response IL-2 activation and signaling pathway
  • Immune response IL-22 signaling pathway
3 Tocris pathways for IL2 Gene
72 Qiagen pathways for IL2 Gene
  • 14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling
  • Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases
  • Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
  • Activation of PKA through GPCR
  • Activation of PKC through GPCR
1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for IL2 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for IL2 Gene

Activates:
Inactivates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for IL2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000165 MAPK cascade TAS --
GO:0001933 negative regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0002250 adaptive immune response IEA --
GO:0002366 leukocyte activation involved in immune response IDA 16204630
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IL2: view

Drugs & Compounds for IL2 Gene

(115) Drugs for IL2 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ClinicalTrials, ApexBio, DGIdb, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Dacarbazine Approved, Investigational Pharma 193
rituximab Approved Pharma Therapeutic Antibodies 2024
Thalidomide Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Pharma Immunomodulatory agent,sedative drug,angiogenesis inhibitor, TNF-alpha synthesis inhibitor, Immunomodulatory agents 429
Cefazolin Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 163
keyhole limpet hemocyanin Approved, Investigational Pharma Target 0

(44) Additional Compounds for IL2 Gene - From: Novoseek and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
AS 101
106566-58-9
GIT 27
6501-72-0

(4) Tocris Compounds for IL2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AS 101 Immunomodulator; inhibits IL-10 synthesis and potentiates IL-1alpha, IL-2 and TNF-alpha release 106566-58-9
GIT 27 Immunomodulator; reduces production of pro-inflammatory cytokines 6501-72-0
Pirfenidone Antifibrotic agent; regulates cytokine levels in vivo 53179-13-8
Thalidomide TNF-alpha synthesis inhibitor 50-35-1

(1) ApexBio Compounds for IL2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Triptolide IL-2/MMP-3/MMP7/MMP19 inhibitor 38748-32-2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with IL2: view

Transcripts for IL2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for IL2 Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
20 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for IL2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for IL2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b
SP1:
SP2:

Relevant External Links for IL2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
IL2

Expression for IL2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for IL2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for IL2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (x9.9) and Bladder (x4.9).

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for IL2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for IL2 Gene:

Hs.89679

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for IL2 Gene

  • Blood(4.8)
  • Spleen(3.9)
  • Lymph node(3.8)
  • Skin(3.5)
  • Bone marrow(3.4)
  • Intestine(3.3)
  • Kidney(3.3)
  • Liver(3.3)
  • Nervous system(3.2)
  • Lung(3.1)
  • Heart(3)
  • Muscle(3)
  • Pancreas(2.8)
  • Thyroid gland(2.7)
  • Stomach(2.7)
  • Adrenal gland(2.6)
  • Bone(2.6)
  • Urine(2.4)
  • Eye(2.3)
  • Saliva(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with IL2: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for IL2 Gene

Orthologs for IL2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for IL2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia IL2 30 31
  • 100 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia IL2 30 31
  • 86.93 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Il2 30
  • 76.25 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Il2 30 17 31
  • 69.98 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia IL2 31
  • 64 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for IL2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for IL2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for IL2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for IL2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for IL2: view image

Paralogs for IL2 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for IL2 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

  • IL2_HUMAN
  • Q0GK43_HUMAN
  • Q13169_HUMAN
  • Q6NZ91_HUMAN
  • Q6NZ93_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with IL2: view

No data available for Paralogs for IL2 Gene

Variants for IL2 Gene

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for IL2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for IL2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3894021 CNV loss 25118596

Variation tolerance for IL2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 44% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.22; 4.90% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for IL2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
IL2
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
IL2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for IL2 Gene

Disorders for IL2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(313) MalaCards diseases for IL2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
capillary leak syndrome
  • systemic capillary leak syndrome
tropical spastic paraparesis
  • htlv-associated myelopathy
smallpox
  • ordinary smallpox
graft-versus-host disease
  • graft-versus-host disease, susceptibility to
lepromatous leprosy
  • type l leprosy
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search IL2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

IL2_HUMAN
  • Note=A chromosomal aberration involving IL2 is found in a form of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Translocation t(4;16)(q26;p13) with involves TNFRSF17. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:1396583}.

Genatlas disease for IL2 Gene

immunodeficiency,severe,combined

Additional Disease Information for IL2

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Tumor Gene Database
(TGDB)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with IL2: view

Publications for IL2 Gene

  1. The association of IL-1beta, IL-2, and IL-6 gene polymorphisms with bone mineral density and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. (PMID: 20060205) Czerny B … Pawlik A (European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 2010) 3 23 41
  2. Confirmation of the genetic association of CTLA4 and PTPN22 with ANCA-associated vasculitis. (PMID: 19951419) Carr EJ … Smith KG (BMC medical genetics 2009) 3 23 41
  3. Association of polymorphisms in complement component C3 gene with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus. (PMID: 18174230) Miyagawa H … Horiuchi T (Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 2008) 3 23 41
  4. IL-10, TGF-beta, IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-gamma cytokine gene polymorphisms in asthma. (PMID: 18972297) Movahedi M … Amirzargar AA (The Journal of asthma : official journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma 2008) 3 23 41
  5. Association study of interleukin 2 (IL2) and IL4 with schizophrenia in a Japanese population. (PMID: 18574615) Watanabe Y … Someya T (European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience 2008) 3 23 41

Products for IL2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for IL2