The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that regulates T and natural killer cell activation and proliferation. This cytokine and interleukine 2 share many biological activities. They are found to bind common hematopoietin receptor subunits, and may compete for the same receptor, and thus negatively regulate each other's activity. The number of CD8+ memory cells is shown ... See more...

Aliases for IL15 Gene

Aliases for IL15 Gene

  • Interleukin 15 2 3 5
  • IL-15 2 3 4
  • Interleukin-15 3 4
  • MGC9721 2
  • IL15 5

External Ids for IL15 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for IL15 Gene

  • GC04P143420
  • GC04P142875
  • GC04P143023
  • GC04P143135
  • GC04P142915
  • GC04P142557
  • GC04P138287

Summaries for IL15 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for IL15 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that regulates T and natural killer cell activation and proliferation. This cytokine and interleukine 2 share many biological activities. They are found to bind common hematopoietin receptor subunits, and may compete for the same receptor, and thus negatively regulate each other's activity. The number of CD8+ memory cells is shown to be controlled by a balance between this cytokine and IL2. This cytokine induces the activation of JAK kinases, as well as the phosphorylation and activation of transcription activators STAT3, STAT5, and STAT6. Studies of the mouse counterpart suggested that this cytokine may increase the expression of apoptosis inhibitor BCL2L1/BCL-x(L), possibly through the transcription activation activity of STAT6, and thus prevent apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

GeneCards Summary for IL15 Gene

IL15 (Interleukin 15) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with IL15 include Nk Cell Deficiency and T Cell Deficiency. Among its related pathways are Rheumatoid arthritis and PEDF Induced Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include cytokine activity and cytokine receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for IL15 Gene

  • Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-lymphocytes (PubMed:8178155). Stimulation by IL15 requires interaction of IL15 with components of the IL2 receptor, including IL2RB and probably IL2RG but not IL2RA (PubMed:8178155). In neutrophils, stimulates phagocytosis probably by signaling through the IL15 receptor, composed of the subunits IL15RA, IL2RB and IL2RG, which results in kinase SYK activation (PubMed:15123770).

Gene Wiki entry for IL15 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for IL15 Gene

Genomics for IL15 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for IL15 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH04J141635 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 262.1 +1.0 1018 4 ZNF600 ZIC2 ZNF592 ZNF341 KLF7 SIN3A IRF2 MAFF GABPB1 ZNF316 IL15 ZNF330 HSALNG0037542 HSALNG0037541-001
GH04J141686 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 21.5 +50.4 50383 1.3 ZNF654 ZNF580 ZNF223 BRCA1 CEBPB ZNF639 ZEB1 KLF7 EP300 ZNF610 IL15 HSALNG0037542 HSALNG0037541-001
GH04J141642 Enhancer 0.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 23.1 +6.6 6617 2.8 PRDM6 JUND PKNOX1 ZSCAN21 SPI1 EP300 FOS IL15 ZNF330 HSALNG0037542 HSALNG0037541-001
GH04J141328 Promoter/Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.6 -307.4 -307405 2.1 CEBPB DEK MAX EP300 GABPA RFX5 STAT3 TBP TCF7L2 SUPT5H LINC02432 IL15 ZNF330 HSALNG0037522 HSALNG0037523
GH04J141349 Enhancer 1 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 13.9 -286.0 -285980 1.9 ATF3 YY1 CEBPB EP300 FOXA2 RXRA STAT3 ZBTB33 TCF7L2 JUND HSALNG0037525 LINC02432 IL15 ZNF330 lnc-ZNF330-3
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around IL15 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for IL15

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the IL15 gene promoter:
  • AP-2gamma
  • GR
  • GR-alpha
  • ISGF-3
  • STAT3
  • STAT5A

Genomic Locations for IL15 Gene

Latest Assembly
chr4:141,636,583-141,733,987
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
97,405 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Previous Assembly
chr4:142,557,736-142,655,140
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
97,405 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

chr4:142,557,752-142,655,140
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
97,389 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for IL15 Gene

Genes around IL15 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
IL15 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for IL15 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for IL15 Gene

Proteins for IL15 Gene

  • Protein details for IL15 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P40933-IL15_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Interleukin-15
    Protein Accession:
    P40933
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D3DNZ2
    • O00440
    • O43512
    • Q495Z8
    • Q6FGX7
    • Q93058
    • Q9UBA3

    Protein attributes for IL15 Gene

    Size:
    162 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    18086 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=CAA71044.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Man-made cDNA with a signal peptide sequence to increase protein secretion (substitution with a signal peptide derived from the mouse IgV kappa chain).; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for IL15 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for IL15 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for IL15 Gene

Post-translational modifications for IL15 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn127
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for IL15 Gene

Antibodies for research

  • Abcam antibodies for IL15

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for IL15 Gene

Domains & Families for IL15 Gene

Gene Families for IL15 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for IL15 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for IL15 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Interleukin-15 (IL15_HUMAN)
  • Interleukin (Q6FGX7_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P40933

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

IL15_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the IL-15/IL-21 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the IL-15/IL-21 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with IL15: view

Function for IL15 Gene

Molecular function for IL15 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-lymphocytes (PubMed:8178155). Stimulation by IL15 requires interaction of IL15 with components of the IL2 receptor, including IL2RB and probably IL2RG but not IL2RA (PubMed:8178155). In neutrophils, stimulates phagocytosis probably by signaling through the IL15 receptor, composed of the subunits IL15RA, IL2RB and IL2RG, which results in kinase SYK activation (PubMed:15123770).
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
interleukin 15,structurally and functionally related to IL2,involved in the differentiation of natural killer cells

LifeMap Function Summary for IL15 Gene

IL15 as growth factor is involved in stem cell differentiation protocols towards the derivation of the following cells:

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for IL15 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for IL15 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005125 cytokine activity IBA 21873635
GO:0005126 cytokine receptor binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16284400
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IL15: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with IL15: view

Animal Models for IL15 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for IL15:
  • Il15 Il15<tm1b(EUCOMM)Hmgu>
  • Il15 Il15<tm1Imx>
  • Il15 Il15<tm1.1Iku>

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for IL15

Clone products for research

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for IL15 Gene

Localization for IL15 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for IL15 Gene

[Isoform IL15-S48AA]: Secreted.
[Isoform IL15-S21AA]: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=IL15-S21AA is not secreted, but rather is stored intracellularly, appearing in the nucleus and cytoplasmic components.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for IL15 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
endosome 4
golgi apparatus 4
plasma membrane 3
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
lysosome 2
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Nuclear speckles (3)
  • Nucleoplasm (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for IL15 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space TAS,IBA 21873635
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm TAS 10851076
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IL15: view

Pathways & Interactions for IL15 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for IL15 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 PEDF Induced Signaling
.94
.94
.73
.71
.62
.61
.57
.51
.47
.46
.43
2 TGF-Beta Pathway
.60
.60
.57
.43
.40
3 Akt Signaling
.60
.60
.55
4 ERK Signaling
.61
.61
.51
5 PAK Pathway
.56
.56
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with IL15: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for IL15 Gene

Activates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for IL15 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001819 positive regulation of cytokine production IBA 21873635
GO:0001866 NK T cell proliferation IEA --
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IEA --
GO:0006955 immune response TAS,IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 8178155
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IL15: view

Drugs & Compounds for IL15 Gene

(47) Drugs for IL15 Gene - From: DrugBank, ClinicalTrials, DGIdb, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Fludarabine Approved Pharma DNA synthsis inhibitor 1633,1633
Cyclophosphamide Approved, Investigational Pharma Nitrogen mustard alkylating agent and prodrug. 3864
Cefazolin Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 175
Alkylating Agents Pharma 5597
Antirheumatic Agents Pharma 12815

(34) Additional Compounds for IL15 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with IL15: view

Transcripts for IL15 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for IL15 Gene

3 REFSEQ mRNAs :
20 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
8 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for IL15

Clone products for research

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for IL15 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - -
SP3: -
SP4: - - - - - -
SP5: - - -
SP6:

Relevant External Links for IL15 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
IL15

Expression for IL15 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for IL15 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for IL15

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for IL15 Gene:

Hs.168132

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for IL15 Gene:

P40933-IL15_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Most abundant in placenta and skeletal muscle. It is also detected in the heart, lung, liver and kidney. IL15-S21AA is preferentially expressed in tissues such as testis and thymus.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for IL15 Gene

  • Bone marrow(4.6)
  • Nervous system(4.6)
  • Intestine(4.6)
  • Heart(4.5)
  • Skin(4.5)
  • Lymph node(3.4)
  • Spleen(3.3)
  • Blood(3.2)
  • Muscle(2.6)
  • Liver(2.5)
  • Lung(2.5)
  • Kidney(2.4)
  • Thyroid gland(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with IL15: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for IL15 Gene

Orthologs for IL15 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for IL15 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia IL15 29 30
  • 100 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia IL15 29 30
  • 87.86 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia IL15 29 30
  • 84.16 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Il15 29 16 30
  • 80.45 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Il15 29
  • 79.84 (n)
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia IL15 30
  • 56 (a)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia IL15 30
  • 48 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves IL15 30
  • 35 (a)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia IL15 30
  • 26 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for IL15 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for IL15 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for IL15 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for IL15 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for IL15: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for IL15

Paralogs for IL15 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for IL15 Gene

Variants for IL15 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for IL15 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 04 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs116501276 Benign: not provided 141,729,955(+) C/T
NM_000585.5(IL15):c.349C>T (p.Leu117=)
NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT,SYNONYMOUS
rs145684493 Likely Benign: not provided 141,732,767(+) T/C
NM_000585.5(IL15):c.408T>C (p.Cys136=)
NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT,SYNONYMOUS

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for IL15 Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for IL15 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3564735 CNV deletion 23714750
nsv1018949 CNV gain 25217958
nsv830094 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for IL15 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 38.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.24; 5.40% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for IL15 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
IL15
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
IL15

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for IL15 Gene

Disorders for IL15 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(75) MalaCards diseases for IL15 Gene - From: COP and GCD

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
nk cell deficiency
  • nk cell defects
t cell deficiency
  • t cell immunodeficiency
severe combined immunodeficiency, x-linked
  • scidx1
rheumatoid arthritis
  • ra
microscopic colitis
  • colitis, microscopic
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search IL15 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for IL15

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Atlas
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with IL15: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for IL15 Gene

Publications for IL15 Gene

  1. Cloning of a T cell growth factor that interacts with the beta chain of the interleukin-2 receptor. (PMID: 8178155) Grabstein KH … Ahdieh M (Science (New York, N.Y.) 1994) 2 3 4 22
  2. Influences of genetic variants in interleukin-15 gene and serum interleukin-15 levels on coronary heart disease. (PMID: 19796965) Gokkusu C … Umman B (Cytokine 2010) 3 22 40
  3. Cytokine and cytokine receptor single-nucleotide polymorphisms predict risk for non-small cell lung cancer among women. (PMID: 19505916) Van Dyke AL … Schwartz AG (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2009) 3 22 40
  4. Interleukin-15 enhances human neutrophil phagocytosis by a Syk-dependent mechanism: importance of the IL-15Ralpha chain. (PMID: 15123770) Ratthé C … Girard D (Journal of leukocyte biology 2004) 3 4 22
  5. Maternal and fetal genetic associations of PTGER3 and PON1 with preterm birth. (PMID: 20140262) Ryckman KK … Jacobsson B (PloS one 2010) 3 40

Products for IL15 Gene

Sources for IL15 Gene