Aliases for IGHM Gene
External Ids for IGHM Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for IGHM Gene
Immunoglobulins (Ig) are the antigen recognition molecules of B cells. An Ig molecule is made up of 2 identical heavy chains and 2 identical light chains (see MIM 147200) joined by disulfide bonds so that each heavy chain is linked to a light chain and the 2 heavy chains are linked together. Each Ig heavy chain has an N-terminal variable (V) region containing the antigen-binding site and a C-terminal constant (C) region, encoded by an individual C region gene, that determines the isotype of the antibody and provides effector or signaling functions. The heavy chain V region is encoded by 1 each of 3 types of genes: V genes (see MIM 147070), joining (J) genes (see MIM 147010), and diversity (D) genes (see MIM 146910). The C region genes are clustered downstream of the V region genes within the heavy chain locus on chromosome 14. The IGHM gene encodes the C region of the mu heavy chain, which defines the IgM isotype. Naive B cells express the transmembrane forms of IgM and IgD (see IGHD; MIM 1471770) on their surface. During an antibody response, activated B cells can switch to the expression of individual downstream heavy chain C region genes by a process of somatic recombination known as isotype switching. In addition, secreted Ig forms that act as antibodies can be produced by alternative RNA processing of the heavy chain C region sequences. Although the membrane forms of all Ig isotypes are monomeric, secreted IgM forms pentamers, and occasionally hexamers, in plasma (summary by Janeway et al., 2005).[supplied by OMIM, Aug 2010]
GeneCards Summary for IGHM Gene
IGHM (Immunoglobulin Heavy Constant Mu) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with IGHM include Agammaglobulinemia 1, Autosomal Recessive and Agammaglobulinemia, Non-Bruton Type. Among its related pathways are Immune response Lectin induced complement pathway and Immune response NFAT in immune response. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include single-stranded DNA binding and phosphatidylcholine binding. An important paralog of this gene is IGHA2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for IGHM Gene
Constant region of immunoglobulin heavy chains. Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins produced by B lymphocytes. In the recognition phase of humoral immunity, the membrane-bound immunoglobulins serve as receptors which, upon binding of a specific antigen, trigger the clonal expansion and differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulins-secreting plasma cells. Secreted immunoglobulins mediate the effector phase of humoral immunity, which results in the elimination of bound antigens (PubMed:22158414, PubMed:20176268). The antigen binding site is formed by the variable domain of one heavy chain, together with that of its associated light chain. Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. The variable domains are assembled by a process called V-(D)-J rearrangement and can then be subjected to somatic hypermutations which, after exposure to antigen and selection, allow affinity maturation for a particular antigen (PubMed:17576170, PubMed:20176268). IgM antibodies play an important role in primary defense mechanisms. They have been shown to be involved in early recognition of external invaders like bacteria and viruses, cellular waste and modified self, as well as in recognition and elimination of precancerous and cancerous lesions. The membrane-bound form is found in the majority of normal B-cells alongside with IgD. Membrane-bound IgM induces the phosphorylation of CD79A and CD79B by the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases. It may cause death of cells by apoptosis. It is also found in soluble form, which represents about 30% of the total serum immunoglobulins where it is found almost exclusively as a homopentamer. After the antigen binds to the B-cell receptor, the secreted form is secreted in large amounts (PubMed:3137579, PubMed:16895553).