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Aliases for IGHD Gene

Aliases for IGHD Gene

  • Immunoglobulin Heavy Constant Delta 2 3 5
  • Constant Region Of Heavy Chain Of IgD 2
  • Ig Delta Chain C Region NIG-65 4
  • Ig Delta Chain C Region WAH 4
  • Ig Delta Chain C Region 4
  • Immunoglobulin Delta 2

External Ids for IGHD Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for IGHD Gene

  • GC14U990032
  • GC14M104276
  • GC14M105375
  • GC14M106303
  • GC14M086437

Summaries for IGHD Gene

GeneCards Summary for IGHD Gene

IGHD (Immunoglobulin Heavy Constant Delta) is a Protein Coding gene. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include antigen binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for IGHD Gene

  • Constant region of immunoglobulin heavy chains. Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins produced by B lymphocytes. In the recognition phase of humoral immunity, the membrane-bound immunoglobulins serve as receptors which, upon binding of a specific antigen, trigger the clonal expansion and differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulins-secreting plasma cells. Secreted immunoglobulins mediate the effector phase of humoral immunity, which results in the elimination of bound antigens (PubMed:22158414, PubMed:20176268). The antigen binding site is formed by the variable domain of one heavy chain, together with that of its associated light chain. Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. The variable domains are assembled by a process called V-(D)-J rearrangement and can then be subjected to somatic hypermutations which, after exposure to antigen and selection, allow affinity maturation for a particular antigen (PubMed:17576170, PubMed:20176268). IgD is the major antigen receptor isotype on the surface of most peripheral B-cells, where it is coexpressed with IgM. The membrane-bound IgD (mIgD) induces the phosphorylation of CD79A and CD79B by the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases. Soluble IgD (sIgD) concentration in serum below those of IgG, IgA, and IgM but much higher than that of IgE. IgM and IgD molecules present on B cells have identical V regions and antigen-binding sites. After the antigen binds to the B-cell receptor, the secreted form sIgD is shut off. IgD is a potent inducer of TNF, IL1B, and IL1RN. IgD also induces release of IL6, IL10, and LIF from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Monocytes seem to be the main producers of cytokines in vitro in the presence of IgD (PubMed:8774350, PubMed:10702483, PubMed:11282392).

Gene Wiki entry for IGHD Gene

Additional gene information for IGHD Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for IGHD Gene

Genomics for IGHD Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for IGHD Gene

Promoters and enhancers for IGHD Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH14I105845 Enhancer 0.2 dbSUPER 550.8 -1.9 -1877 3.4 IGHD IGHM
GH14I105849 Enhancer 0.4 dbSUPER 0.8 -4.3 -4348 1.3 POLR2A BMI1 IGHV4-59 CLBA1 IGHD IGHM
GH14I105853 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE dbSUPER 0.4 -7.6 -7646 0.2 ZNF687 RFX1 SMAD1 BACH1 MAX EBF1 GATA3 POLR2A ZNF207 MYC IGHM IGHD
GH14I105857 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE dbSUPER 0.4 -10.4 -10353 0.2 PKNOX1 ZNF687 EBF1 MNT POLR2A IKZF1 ATF7 IKZF2 IGHM MIR4539 IGHD
GH14I105841 Enhancer 0.3 dbSUPER 0.8 +3.0 2989 2.1 POLR2A IGHE IGHD GC14M105810
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around IGHD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for IGHD Gene

Genomic Locations for IGHD Gene
chr14:105,836,765-105,845,678
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
8,914 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr14:106,303,099-106,312,010
(GRCh37/hg19)

Genomic View for IGHD Gene

Genes around IGHD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
IGHD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for IGHD Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for IGHD Gene

Proteins for IGHD Gene

  • Protein details for IGHD Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P01880-IGHD_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Immunoglobulin heavy constant delta
    Protein Accession:
    P01880
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A0A087WUS7
    • Q6P4I8
    • Q8WU38

    Protein attributes for IGHD Gene

    Size:
    384 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    42353 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Immunoglobulins are composed of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains; disulfide-linked (PubMed:20176268). An IgD molecule contains thus a delta heavy chain combined with either a kappa or a lambda light chains. Kappa light chains are found predominantly on the membrane IgD (mIgD) form and lambda on the secreted IgD (sIgD) form, this fact is poorly understood. Membrane-bound IgD molecules are non-covalently associated with a heterodimer of CD79A and CD79B (PubMed:11282392).
    Miscellaneous:
    • IgD is not present in every species and this does not relate to phylogeny and evolution. IgD is present in primates, dog, mouse and rat whereas it is undetectable in rabbit, guinea pig, swine, cattle, sheep and Xenopus.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for IGHD Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for IGHD Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for IGHD Gene

Post-translational modifications for IGHD Gene

  • Glycosylation at isoforms=2109, posLast=110110, isoforms=2113, isoforms=2126, isoforms=2127, isoforms=2131, isoforms=2132, isoforms=2225, isoforms=2316, and posLast=367367
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for IGHD Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for IGHD

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for IGHD Gene

Domains & Families for IGHD Gene

Gene Families for IGHD Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for IGHD Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with IGHD: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for IGHD Gene

Function for IGHD Gene

Molecular function for IGHD Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Constant region of immunoglobulin heavy chains. Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins produced by B lymphocytes. In the recognition phase of humoral immunity, the membrane-bound immunoglobulins serve as receptors which, upon binding of a specific antigen, trigger the clonal expansion and differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulins-secreting plasma cells. Secreted immunoglobulins mediate the effector phase of humoral immunity, which results in the elimination of bound antigens (PubMed:22158414, PubMed:20176268). The antigen binding site is formed by the variable domain of one heavy chain, together with that of its associated light chain. Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. The variable domains are assembled by a process called V-(D)-J rearrangement and can then be subjected to somatic hypermutations which, after exposure to antigen and selection, allow affinity maturation for a particular antigen (PubMed:17576170, PubMed:20176268). IgD is the major antigen receptor isotype on the surface of most peripheral B-cells, where it is coexpressed with IgM. The membrane-bound IgD (mIgD) induces the phosphorylation of CD79A and CD79B by the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases. Soluble IgD (sIgD) concentration in serum below those of IgG, IgA, and IgM but much higher than that of IgE. IgM and IgD molecules present on B cells have identical V regions and antigen-binding sites. After the antigen binds to the B-cell receptor, the secreted form sIgD is shut off. IgD is a potent inducer of TNF, IL1B, and IL1RN. IgD also induces release of IL6, IL10, and LIF from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Monocytes seem to be the main producers of cytokines in vitro in the presence of IgD (PubMed:8774350, PubMed:10702483, PubMed:11282392).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for IGHD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003823 antigen binding NAS,IBA 6787589
GO:0034987 immunoglobulin receptor binding IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IGHD: view

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Phenotypes , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for IGHD Gene

Localization for IGHD Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for IGHD Gene

Isoform 1: Secreted.
Isoform 2: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for IGHD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0009897 external side of plasma membrane IBA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IGHD: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS and Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for IGHD Gene

Pathways & Interactions for IGHD Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for IGHD Gene

Selected Interacting proteins: P01880-IGHD_HUMAN for IGHD Gene via IID

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for IGHD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002376 immune system process IEA --
GO:0006910 phagocytosis, recognition IBA --
GO:0006911 phagocytosis, engulfment IBA --
GO:0006955 immune response NAS 6787589
GO:0006958 complement activation, classical pathway IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IGHD: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for IGHD Gene

Drugs & Compounds for IGHD Gene

(3) Drugs for IGHD Gene - From: ClinicalTrials

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Hormone Antagonists Pharma 13948
Hormones Pharma 15237
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Pharma 13936
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with IGHD: view

Transcripts for IGHD Gene

mRNA/cDNA for IGHD Gene

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for IGHD Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for IGHD Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
IGHD
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
IGHD

Expression for IGHD Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for IGHD Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for IGHD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Spleen (x9.4), Whole Blood (x6.6), and Lung (x5.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for IGHD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Synovial fluid (31.9), Serum (7.7), Plasma (7.6), and Skin (6.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for IGHD Gene



NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of IGHD Gene:

IGHD
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with IGHD: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt , Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for IGHD Gene

Orthologs for IGHD Gene

Evolution for IGHD Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for IGHD (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for IGHD (if available)

No data available for Orthologs for IGHD Gene

Paralogs for IGHD Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for IGHD Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with IGHD: view

No data available for Paralogs for IGHD Gene

Variants for IGHD Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for IGHD Gene

IGHD_HUMAN-P01880
There are several alleles. The sequence shown is that of IMGT allele IGHD*02.

Additional Variant Information for IGHD Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
IGHD

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar , Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) and Variation tolerance for IGHD Gene

Disorders for IGHD Gene

Additional Disease Information for IGHD

No disorders were found for IGHD Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for IGHD Gene

Publications for IGHD Gene

  1. Human immunoglobulin D: genomic sequence of the delta heavy chain. (PMID: 3922054) White MB … Blattner FR (Science (New York, N.Y.) 1985) 2 3 4 58
  2. Human plasma N-glycoproteome analysis by immunoaffinity subtraction, hydrazide chemistry, and mass spectrometry. (PMID: 16335952) Liu T … Smith RD (Journal of proteome research 2005) 3 4 58
  3. Immunoglobulin D enhances the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1 beta as well as interleukin-1 receptor antagonist from human mononuclear cells. (PMID: 8774350) Drenth JP … van der Meer JW (Immunology 1996) 3 4 58
  4. Amino acid sequence of galactosamine-containing glycopeptides in the hinge region of a human immunoglobulin D. (PMID: 7092891) Takayasu T … Munekata E (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1982) 3 4 58
  5. Complete amino acid sequence of the Fc region of a human delta chain. (PMID: 6785754) Shinoda T … Shimizu A (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1981) 3 4 58

Products for IGHD Gene

Sources for IGHD Gene

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