This gene encodes a soluble cytokine that is a member of the type II interferon class. The encoded protein is secreted by cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The active protein is a homodimer that binds to the interferon gamma receptor which triggers a cellular response to viral and microbial infections. Mutations in this gene are associated with an increased ... See more...

Aliases for IFNG Gene

Aliases for IFNG Gene

  • Interferon Gamma 2 3 4 5
  • Immune Interferon 3 4
  • IFN-Gamma 3 4
  • IMD69 3
  • IFNG 5
  • IFG 3
  • IFI 3

External Ids for IFNG Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for IFNG Gene

  • GC12M068064
  • GC12M068352
  • GC12M068265
  • GC12M066834
  • GC12M068548
  • GC12M065599

Summaries for IFNG Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for IFNG Gene

  • This gene encodes a soluble cytokine that is a member of the type II interferon class. The encoded protein is secreted by cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The active protein is a homodimer that binds to the interferon gamma receptor which triggers a cellular response to viral and microbial infections. Mutations in this gene are associated with an increased susceptibility to viral, bacterial and parasitic infections and to several autoimmune diseases. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2015]

GeneCards Summary for IFNG Gene

IFNG (Interferon Gamma) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with IFNG include Immunodeficiency 69 and Hepatitis C Virus. Among its related pathways are Rheumatoid arthritis and Folate Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include cytokine activity and interferon-gamma receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for IFNG Gene

  • Produced by lymphocytes activated by specific antigens or mitogens. IFN-gamma, in addition to having antiviral activity, has important immunoregulatory functions. It is a potent activator of macrophages, it has antiproliferative effects on transformed cells and it can potentiate the antiviral and antitumor effects of the type I interferons.

Gene Wiki entry for IFNG Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for IFNG Gene

Genomics for IFNG Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for IFNG Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH12J068159 Promoter/Enhancer 1.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 250.7 +0.7 740 2.8 ZNF654 REST CTCF SMC3 EBF1 IKZF1 RAD21 ZNF217 CEBPB IKZF2 IFNG lnc-IL26-1 LINC02421 ENSG00000256708 HSALNG0092143 IFNG-AS1 DYRK2
GH12J068478 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 13.3 -321.9 -321943 5.8 SP1 BCL11A SIN3A TRIM22 IRF4 ZNF316 CBFB NFE2 ATF1 BHLHE40 LINC02384 IFNG MDM1 NUP107 LOC100507250 piR-36260-022 piR-59409-024 HSALNG0092163 HSALNG0092160 RAP1B
GH12J067988 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 4.2 +168.8 168825 5 SP1 BCL11A EBF1 BHLHE40 TCF7L2 SMARCE1 BATF FOXA1 IKZF1 NR2F1 IFNG-AS1 LINC01479 IFNG IL22 DYRK2 RPL39P28 HSALNG0092134 LOC107984526
GH12J068080 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl ENCODE 11.6 +78.8 78839 1 IKZF1 RUNX3 HSALNG0092140 IFNG IFNG-AS1 lnc-DYRK2-14 HSALNG0092134 LOC107984526 DYRK2
GH12J068200 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl 11.1 -41.1 -41061 1.2 CAVIN1 NR2C1 PTTG1 SOX6 IKZF1 NR4A1 IFNG IL26 HSALNG0092137 LOC105369818 IFNG-AS1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around IFNG on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for IFNG

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the IFNG gene promoter:
  • ATF-2
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB
  • Hlf
  • Ik-1
  • POU2F1
  • POU2F1a
  • POU2F1b
  • POU2F1c
  • STAT3

Genomic Locations for IFNG Gene

Latest Assembly
chr12:68,154,768-68,159,740
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
4,973 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Previous Assembly
chr12:68,548,548-68,553,520
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
4,973 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

chr12:68,548,548-68,553,527
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
4,980 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for IFNG Gene

Genes around IFNG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
IFNG Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for IFNG Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for IFNG Gene

Proteins for IFNG Gene

  • Protein details for IFNG Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P01579-IFNG_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Interferon gamma
    Protein Accession:
    P01579
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B5BU88
    • Q53ZV4

    Protein attributes for IFNG Gene

    Size:
    166 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    19348 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for IFNG Gene

neXtProt entry for IFNG Gene

Post-translational modifications for IFNG Gene

  • Proteolytic processing produces C-terminal heterogeneity, with proteins ending alternatively at Gly-150, Met-157 or Gly-161.
  • Glycosylation at Asn48 and Asn120
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect
    • IFNG_HUMAN (287)

Other Protein References for IFNG Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibodies for research

Protein products for research

Assay products for research

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for IFNG Gene

Domains & Families for IFNG Gene

Gene Families for IFNG Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Disease related genes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for IFNG Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Interferon gamma

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for IFNG Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Interferon gamma (A8YQE4_HUMAN)
  • Immune interferon (IFNG_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P01579

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

IFNG_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the type II (or gamma) interferon family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the type II (or gamma) interferon family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with IFNG: view

Function for IFNG Gene

Molecular function for IFNG Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Produced by lymphocytes activated by specific antigens or mitogens. IFN-gamma, in addition to having antiviral activity, has important immunoregulatory functions. It is a potent activator of macrophages, it has antiproliferative effects on transformed cells and it can potentiate the antiviral and antitumor effects of the type I interferons.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
interferon type II,gamma,19.3kDa,expressed by lymphocytes,involved in immunoregulation

LifeMap Function Summary for IFNG Gene

IFNG as growth factor is involved in stem cell differentiation protocols towards the derivation of the following cells:

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for IFNG Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for IFNG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005125 cytokine activity IBA 21873635
GO:0005133 interferon-gamma receptor binding TAS,IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 7617032
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IFNG: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with IFNG: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for IFNG Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for IFNG Gene

MGI Knock Outs for IFNG:
  • Ifng Ifng<tm1Ts>
  • Ifng Ifng<tm1.1(KOMP)Vlcg>
  • Ifng Ifng<tm1Yiw>

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for IFNG

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for IFNG Gene

Localization for IFNG Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for IFNG Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for IFNG gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 3
cytoskeleton 3
mitochondrion 3
nucleus 3
cytosol 3
peroxisome 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
endosome 2
lysosome 2
golgi apparatus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for IFNG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IDA,TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IFNG: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for IFNG Gene

Pathways & Interactions for IFNG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with IFNG: view

Pathways by source for IFNG Gene

10 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathways for IFNG Gene
  • Bacterial infections in CF airways
  • Immune response Bacterial infections in normal airways
  • Immune response CD16 signaling in NK cells
  • Immune response IFN gamma signaling pathway
  • Immune response IL-12-induced IFN-gamma production
12 Qiagen pathways for IFNG Gene
  • Activation of NF-KappaB by PKR
  • Cellular Transformation by HTLV1
  • Colorectal Cancer Metastasis
  • Cytokine Network
  • HMGB1 Pathway
1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for IFNG Gene
2 GeneTex pathways for IFNG Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for IFNG Gene

Activates:
Inactivates:
Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for IFNG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS --
GO:0001774 microglial cell activation ISS --
GO:0001819 positive regulation of cytokine production IDA 30634164
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA 22504299
GO:0002250 adaptive immune response IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IFNG: view

Drugs & Compounds for IFNG Gene

(82) Drugs for IFNG Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Olsalazine Approved Pharma Target 2
emapalumab Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, neutralizer 0
Foreskin fibroblast (neonatal) Approved Pharma Target, agonist 0
Foreskin keratinocyte (neonatal) Approved Pharma Target, agonist 0
Glucosamine Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor 99

(47) Additional Compounds for IFNG Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with IFNG: view

Transcripts for IFNG Gene

mRNA/cDNA for IFNG Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
20 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
1 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for IFNG

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for IFNG Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for IFNG Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
IFNG

Expression for IFNG Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for IFNG Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for IFNG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x29.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for IFNG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (68.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for IFNG Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for IFNG Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for IFNG

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for IFNG Gene:

Hs.856

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for IFNG Gene:

P01579-IFNG_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Released primarily from activated T lymphocytes.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for IFNG Gene

  • Blood(4.7)
  • Lymph node(3.2)
  • Spleen(3)
  • Nervous system(2.9)
  • Liver(2.9)
  • Intestine(2.9)
  • Heart(2.9)
  • Bone marrow(2.9)
  • Kidney(2.7)
  • Lung(2.7)
  • Skin(2.6)
  • Muscle(2.6)
  • Pancreas(2.5)
  • Eye(2.4)
  • Adrenal gland(2.2)
  • Urine(2.2)
  • Thyroid gland(2.1)
  • Bone(2.1)
  • Stomach(2.1)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for IFNG Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
Systems:
  • cardiovascular
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • lymphatic
  • respiratory
Regions:
Thorax:
  • lung
General:
  • blood
  • bone marrow
  • hair
  • red blood cell
  • skin
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with IFNG: view

Primer products for research

Orthologs for IFNG Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for IFNG Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia IFNG 29 30
  • 99.2 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia IFNG 29
  • 77.71 (n)
IFN-GAMMA 30
  • 66 (a)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia IFNG 29 30
  • 75.35 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ifng 29 16 30
  • 62.99 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ifng 29
  • 60.65 (n)
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia IFNG 30
  • 32 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves IFN-GAMMA 30
  • 33 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for IFNG was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for IFNG Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for IFNG (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for IFNG (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for IFNG: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for IFNG

Paralogs for IFNG Gene

No data available for Paralogs for IFNG Gene

Variants for IFNG Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for IFNG Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 12 pos Variation AA Info Type
881295 Likely Benign: Aplastic anemia 68,154,888(-) T/A
NM_000619.3(IFNG):c.*465A>T
THREE_PRIME_UTR
881746 Uncertain Significance: Aplastic anemia 68,155,122(-) A/G
NM_000619.3(IFNG):c.*231T>C
THREE_PRIME_UTR
881747 Uncertain Significance: Aplastic anemia 68,155,166(-) A/C
NM_000619.3(IFNG):c.*187T>G
THREE_PRIME_UTR
881748 Uncertain Significance: Aplastic anemia 68,155,331(-) A/T
NM_000619.3(IFNG):c.*22T>A
THREE_PRIME_UTR
881749 Uncertain Significance: Aplastic anemia 68,155,423(-) G/A
NM_000619.3(IFNG):c.431C>T (p.Ser144Leu)
MISSENSE

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for IFNG Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Variation tolerance for IFNG Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 36.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.07; 1.66% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for IFNG Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
IFNG
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
IFNG
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
IFNG

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for IFNG Gene

Disorders for IFNG Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(377) MalaCards diseases for IFNG Gene - From: OMI, CVR, GTR, ORP, COP, and GCD

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
immunodeficiency 69
  • imd69
hepatitis c virus
  • hepatitis c virus, susceptibility to
tuberous sclerosis 2
  • tsc2
aplastic anemia
  • aplastic anemia, susceptibility to
human immunodeficiency virus type 1
  • human immunodeficiency virus type 1, susceptibility to
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search IFNG in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

IFNG_HUMAN
  • Aplastic anemia (AA) [MIM:609135]: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements. It is characterized by peripheral pancytopenia and marrow hypoplasia. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15327519}. Note=Disease susceptibility may be associated with variants affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for IFNG

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Atlas
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with IFNG: view

No data available for Genatlas for IFNG Gene

Publications for IFNG Gene

  1. Homozygosis for (12) CA repeats in the first intron of the human IFN-gamma gene is significantly associated with the risk of aplastic anaemia in Caucasian population. (PMID: 15327519) Dufour C … Department of Hematology, Ospedale S. Martino, Genoa, Italy (British journal of haematology 2004) 3 4 40 72
  2. Interferon-gamma gene and interferon-gamma receptor-1 gene polymorphisms in children with tuberculosis from Turkey. (PMID: 20055726) Onay H … Ozkinay F (Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases 2010) 3 22 40
  3. Gene-gene and gene - clinical factors interaction in acute myocardial infarction: a new detailed risk chart. (PMID: 20388088) Licastro F … Ferrari R (Current pharmaceutical design 2010) 3 22 40
  4. Cytokine gene polymorphisms and BALF cytokine levels in interstitial lung diseases. (PMID: 19117745) Vasakova M … Striz I (Respiratory medicine 2009) 3 22 40
  5. Cytokine gene polymorphisms across tuberculosis clinical spectrum in Pakistani patients. (PMID: 19274101) Ansari A … Hussain R (PloS one 2009) 3 22 40

Products for IFNG Gene