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Aliases for HRNR Gene

Aliases for HRNR Gene

  • Hornerin 2 3 3 5
  • Filaggrin Family Member 3 2 3
  • S100a18 3 4
  • Intermediate Filament-Associated Protein 3
  • S100A16 3
  • FLG3 3

External Ids for HRNR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HRNR Gene

  • GC01M148998
  • GC01M150451
  • GC01M123561

Summaries for HRNR Gene

GeneCards Summary for HRNR Gene

HRNR (Hornerin) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Innate Immune System. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding. An important paralog of this gene is FLG2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HRNR Gene

  • Component of the epidermal cornified cell envelopes.

Additional gene information for HRNR Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HRNR Gene

Genomics for HRNR Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for HRNR Gene

Promoters and enhancers for HRNR Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01I152224 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 550.8 0.0 -17 0.1 HRNR FLG-AS1 PIR46233
GH01I152225 Enhancer 0.2 ENCODE 571.3 -1.7 -1673 1.3 HRNR FLG-AS1 PIR46233
GH01I151940 Enhancer 1.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 27.3 +280.1 280098 7.6 PKNOX1 CLOCK FOXA2 NEUROD1 SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B ZNF416 FOS POGZ GABPB2 PI4KB MRPL9 PIP5K1A LYSMD1 ENSG00000229021 HRNR THEM4 ZNF687
GH01I152107 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 25 +114.0 113984 5 HDGF NEUROD1 SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B ZNF121 E2F8 ZNF207 ZNF548 POGZ PI4KB PIP5K1A MRPL9 HRNR LYSMD1 ZNF687 ENSG00000229021 RN7SL444P TCHH
GH01I151610 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.6 +612.1 612097 3.5 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 FOXA2 ARID4B NEUROD1 SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ENSG00000250734 SNX27 SETDB1 PIP5K1A ZNF687 CTSK PI4KB C1orf56 UBE2D3P3 GOLPH3L
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around HRNR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the HRNR gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for HRNR Gene

Genomic Locations for HRNR Gene
12,121 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for HRNR Gene

Genes around HRNR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
HRNR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for HRNR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HRNR Gene

Proteins for HRNR Gene

  • Protein details for HRNR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5DT20
    • Q5U1F4

    Protein attributes for HRNR Gene

    2850 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    282390 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for HRNR Gene

Post-translational modifications for HRNR Gene

  • Forms covalent cross-links mediated by transglutaminase TGM3, between glutamine and the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues (in vitro).
  • Processed during the process of epidermal differentiation.

Other Protein References for HRNR Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for HRNR Gene

Domains & Families for HRNR Gene

Gene Families for HRNR Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HRNR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the S100-fused protein family.
  • Belongs to the S100-fused protein family.
  • In the N-terminal section; belongs to the S-100 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HRNR: view

Function for HRNR Gene

Molecular function for HRNR Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Component of the epidermal cornified cell envelopes.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By UV-B irradiation.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for HRNR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HRNR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IEA --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
GO:0046914 transition metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HRNR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HRNR: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HRNR Gene

Localization for HRNR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HRNR Gene

Cytoplasmic granule. Note=Found in keratohyalin granules in the granular cells of the epidermis.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HRNR gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
lysosome 4
cytosol 3
mitochondrion 2
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HRNR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001533 cornified envelope IDA 21282207
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA,HDA 21630459
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 21282207
GO:0035578 azurophil granule lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HRNR: view

Pathways & Interactions for HRNR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HRNR: view

Pathways by source for HRNR Gene

3 Reactome pathways for HRNR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HRNR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007275 multicellular organism development IEA --
GO:0031424 keratinization IEA --
GO:0043163 cell envelope organization IDA 21282207
GO:0043312 neutrophil degranulation TAS --
GO:0061436 establishment of skin barrier IEP 23403047
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HRNR: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for HRNR Gene

Drugs & Compounds for HRNR Gene

(1) Drugs for HRNR Gene - From: DrugBank

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Zinc Approved, Investigational Pharma Target 2430
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HRNR: view

Transcripts for HRNR Gene

mRNA/cDNA for HRNR Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(1) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for HRNR Gene

Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HRNR Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for HRNR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for HRNR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for HRNR Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for HRNR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urinary Bladder (33.6) and Heart (8.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for HRNR Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of HRNR Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HRNR Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HRNR Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in cornified epidermis, psoriatic and regenerating skin after wounding. Found in the upper granular layer and in the entire cornified layer of epidermis.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for HRNR Gene

  • Skin(4.4)
  • Liver(4.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HRNR: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for HRNR Gene

Orthologs for HRNR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for HRNR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HRNR 34
  • 83 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 31 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 29 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hrnr 34
  • 28 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CRNN 34
  • 14 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 13 (a)
Species where no ortholog for HRNR was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • cow (Bos Taurus)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for HRNR Gene

Gene Tree for HRNR (if available)
Gene Tree for HRNR (if available)

Paralogs for HRNR Gene

Paralogs for HRNR Gene

(15) SIMAP similar genes for HRNR Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HRNR: view

Variants for HRNR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HRNR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000278058 -- 152,212,429(-) C/A 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1001911398 -- 152,225,031(-) C/A/G upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001961756 -- 152,226,123(-) C/G upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001963642 -- 152,212,875(-) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1002067854 -- 152,225,875(-) A/G upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HRNR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv8391 CNV gain+loss 18304495
nsv57 CNV insertion 15895083
nsv547853 CNV gain 21841781
nsv514913 CNV gain 21397061
nsv509468 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv471347 CNV gain 19718026
nsv2877 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv1152232 CNV duplication 26484159
nsv1115369 CNV duplication 24896259
nsv1075801 CNV duplication 25765185
nsv1014095 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1007097 CNV gain 25217958
esv3397333 CNV duplication 20981092
esv29399 CNV gain+loss 19812545
esv2718106 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2665574 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2159882 CNV deletion 18987734
esv1763423 CNV deletion 17803354
dgv75n67 CNV gain 20364138
dgv74n67 CNV gain 20364138
dgv214e59 CNV duplication 20981092

Variation tolerance for HRNR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 100% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 13.50; 95.54% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for HRNR Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HRNR Gene

Disorders for HRNR Gene

Additional Disease Information for HRNR

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for HRNR Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for HRNR Gene

Publications for HRNR Gene

  1. Identification of human hornerin and its expression in regenerating and psoriatic skin. (PMID: 15507446) Takaishi M … Huh NH (The Journal of biological chemistry 2005) 3 4 22 58
  2. Ultraviolet B irradiation induces the expression of hornerin in xenotransplanted human skin. (PMID: 23751202) Makino T … Shimizu T (Acta histochemica 2014) 3 4 58
  3. Hornerin is a component of the epidermal cornified cell envelopes. (PMID: 21282207) Henry J … Simon M (FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2011) 3 4 58
  4. Variation in genes of the epidermal differentiation complex in German atopic dermatitis patients. (PMID: 19601998) Stemmler S … Hoffjan S (International journal of immunogenetics 2009) 3 44 58
  5. Highly complex peptide aggregates of the S100 fused-type protein hornerin are present in human skin. (PMID: 19020553) Wu Z … Schröder JM (The Journal of investigative dermatology 2009) 3 22 58

Products for HRNR Gene

Sources for HRNR Gene

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