Aliases for HLA-E Gene
External Ids for HLA-E Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HLA-E Gene
HLA-E belongs to the HLA class I heavy chain paralogues. This class I molecule is a heterodimer consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain (beta-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is anchored in the membrane. HLA-E binds a restricted subset of peptides derived from the leader peptides of other class I molecules. The heavy chain is approximately 45 kDa and its gene contains 8 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the alpha1 and alpha2 domains, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the alpha3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane region, and exons 6 and 7 encode the cytoplasmic tail. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for HLA-E Gene
HLA-E (Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class I, E) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HLA-E include Bk-Virus Nephropathy and Human Cytomegalovirus Infection. Among its related pathways are Immune response Role of DAP12 receptors in NK cells and Measles. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include signaling receptor binding and MHC class I protein binding. An important paralog of this gene is HLA-A.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for HLA-E Gene
Non-classical major histocompatibility class Ib molecule involved in immune self-nonself discrimination. In complex with B2M/beta-2-microglobulin binds nonamer self-peptides derived from the signal sequence of classical MHC class Ia molecules (VL9 peptides) (PubMed:9754572, PubMed:18083576, PubMed:18339401). Peptide-bound HLA-E-B2M heterotrimeric complex primarily functions as a ligand for natural killer (NK) cell inhibitory receptor KLRD1-KLRC1, enabling NK cells to monitor the expression of other MHC class I molecules in healthy cells and to tolerate self (PubMed:9754572, PubMed:9486650, PubMed:17179229, PubMed:18083576). Upon cellular stress, preferentially binds signal sequence-derived peptides from stress-induced chaperones and is no longer recognized by NK cell inhibitory receptor KLRD1-KLRC1, resulting in impaired protection from NK cells (PubMed:12461076). Binds signal sequence-derived peptides from non-classical MHC class Ib HLA-G molecules and acts as a ligand for NK cell activating receptor KLRD1-KLRC2, likely playing a role in the generation and effector functions of adaptive NK cells and in maternal-fetal tolerance during pregnancy (PubMed:9754572, PubMed:30134159). Besides self-peptides, can also bind and present pathogen-derived peptides conformationally similar to VL9 peptides to alpha-beta T cell receptor (TCR) on unconventional CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, ultimately triggering antimicrobial immune response (PubMed:16474394, PubMed:30087334).
(Microbial infection) Viruses like human cytomegalovirus have evolved an escape mechanism whereby virus-induced down-regulation of host MHC class I molecules is coupled to the binding of viral peptides to HLA-E, restoring HLA-E expression and inducing HLA-E-dependent NK cell immune tolerance to infected cells.
(Microbial infection) May bind HIV-1 gag/Capsid protein p24-derived peptide (AISPRTLNA) on infected cells and may inhibit NK cell cytotoxicity, a mechanism that allows HIV-1 to escape immune recognition.
(Microbial infection) Upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, may contribute to functional exhaustion of cytotoxic NK cells and CD8-positive T cells (PubMed:32859121). Binds SARS-CoV-2 S/Spike protein S1-derived peptide (LQPRTFLL) expressed on the surface of lung epithelial cells, inducing NK cell exhaustion and dampening antiviral immune surveillance (PubMed:32859121).