Aliases for HLA-DRA Gene
External Ids for HLA-DRA Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for HLA-DRA Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HLA-DRA Gene
HLA-DRA is one of the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha and a beta chain, both anchored in the membrane. This molecule is expressed on the surface of various antigen presenting cells such as B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and monocytes/macrophages, and plays a central role in the immune system and response by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins, in particular, pathogen-derived peptides to T cells. The alpha chain is approximately 33-35 kDa and its gene contains 5 exons. Exon 1 encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, and exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. DRA does not have polymorphisms in the peptide binding part and acts as the sole alpha chain for DRB1, DRB3, DRB4 and DRB5. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2020]
GeneCards Summary for HLA-DRA Gene
HLA-DRA (Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II, DR Alpha) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HLA-DRA include Graham-Little-Piccardi-Lassueur Syndrome and Penicillin Allergy. Among its related pathways are Rheumatoid arthritis and Allograft rejection. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include peptide antigen binding and MHC class II receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is HLA-DPA1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for HLA-DRA Gene
An alpha chain of antigen-presenting major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecule. In complex with the beta chain HLA-DRB, displays antigenic peptides on professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) for recognition by alpha-beta T cell receptor (TCR) on HLA-DR-restricted CD4-positive T cells. This guides antigen-specific T-helper effector functions, both antibody-mediated immune response and macrophage activation, to ultimately eliminate the infectious agents and transformed cells (PubMed:29884618, PubMed:17334368, PubMed:8145819, PubMed:15322540, PubMed:22327072, PubMed:27591323, PubMed:31495665, PubMed:15265931, PubMed:9075930, PubMed:24190431). Typically presents extracellular peptide antigens of 10 to 30 amino acids that arise from proteolysis of endocytosed antigens in lysosomes (PubMed:8145819). In the tumor microenvironment, presents antigenic peptides that are primarily generated in tumor-resident APCs likely via phagocytosis of apoptotic tumor cells or macropinocytosis of secreted tumor proteins (PubMed:31495665). Presents peptides derived from intracellular proteins that are trapped in autolysosomes after macroautophagy, a mechanism especially relevant for T cell selection in the thymus and central immune tolerance (PubMed:17182262, PubMed:23783831). The selection of the immunodominant epitopes follows two processing modes: 'bind first, cut/trim later' for pathogen-derived antigenic peptides and 'cut first, bind later' for autoantigens/self-peptides (PubMed:25413013). The anchor residue at position 1 of the peptide N-terminus, usually a large hydrophobic residue, is essential for high affinity interaction with MHCII molecules (PubMed:8145819).