Aliases for HLA-C Gene
External Ids for HLA-C Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for HLA-C Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HLA-C Gene
HLA-C belongs to the HLA class I heavy chain paralogues. This class I molecule is a heterodimer consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain (beta-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is anchored in the membrane. Class I molecules play a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from endoplasmic reticulum lumen. They are expressed in nearly all cells. The heavy chain is approximately 45 kDa and its gene contains 8 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the alpha1 and alpha2 domain, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the alpha3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane region, and exons 6 and 7 encode the cytoplasmic tail. Polymorphisms within exon 2 and exon 3 are responsible for the peptide binding specificity of each class one molecule. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow and kidney transplantation. About 6000 HLA-C alleles have been described. The HLA system plays an important role in the occurrence and outcome of infectious diseases, including those caused by the malaria parasite, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The structural spike and the nucleocapsid proteins of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), are reported to contain multiple Class I epitopes with predicted HLA restrictions. Individual HLA genetic variation may help explain different immune responses to a virus across a population.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2020]
GeneCards Summary for HLA-C Gene
HLA-C (Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class I, C) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HLA-C include Psoriasis 1 and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1. Among its related pathways are Immune response Role of DAP12 receptors in NK cells and Measles. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include signaling receptor binding and TAP binding. An important paralog of this gene is HLA-B.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for HLA-C Gene
Antigen-presenting major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecule with an important role in reproduction and antiviral immunity (PubMed:20972337, PubMed:24091323, PubMed:20439706, PubMed:11172028, PubMed:20104487, PubMed:28649982, PubMed:29312307). In complex with B2M/beta 2 microglobulin displays a restricted repertoire of self and viral peptides and acts as a dominant ligand for inhibitory and activating killer immunoglobulin receptors (KIRs) expressed on NK cells (PubMed:16141329). In an allogeneic setting, such as during pregnancy, mediates interaction of extravillous trophoblasts with KIR on uterine NK cells and regulate trophoblast invasion necessary for placentation and overall fetal growth (PubMed:20972337, PubMed:24091323). During viral infection, may present viral peptides with low affinity for KIRs, impeding KIR-mediated inhibition through peptide antagonism and favoring lysis of infected cells (PubMed:20439706). Presents a restricted repertoire of viral peptides on antigen-presenting cells for recognition by alpha-beta T cell receptor (TCR) on HLA-C-restricted CD8-positive T cells, guiding antigen-specific T cell immune response to eliminate infected cells, particularly in chronic viral infection settings such as HIV-1 or CMV infection (PubMed:11172028, PubMed:20104487, PubMed:28649982). Both the peptide and the MHC molecule are recognized by TCR, the peptide is responsible for the fine specificity of antigen recognition and MHC residues account for the MHC restriction of T cells (By similarity). Typically presents intracellular peptide antigens of 9 amino acids that arise from cytosolic proteolysis via proteasome. Can bind different peptides containing allele-specific binding motifs, which are mainly defined by anchor residues at position 2 and 9. Preferentially displays peptides having a restricted repertoire of hydrophobic or aromatic amino acids (Phe, Ile, Leu, Met, Val and Tyr) at the C-terminal anchor (PubMed:8265661, PubMed:25311805).
ALLELE C*01:02: The peptide-bound form interacts with KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3 inhibitory receptors on NK cells. The low affinity peptides compete with the high affinity peptides impeding KIR-mediated inhibition and favoring lysis of infected cells (PubMed:20439706). Presents to CD8-positive T cells a CMV epitope derived from UL83/pp65 (RCPEMISVL), an immediate-early antigen necessary for initiating viral replication (PubMed:12947002).
ALLELE C*04:01: Presents a conserved HIV-1 epitope derived from env (SFNCGGEFF) to memory CD8-positive T cells, eliciting very strong IFNG responses (PubMed:20104487). Presents CMV epitope derived from UL83/pp65 (QYDPVAALF) to CD8-positive T cells, triggering T cell cytotoxic response (PubMed:12947002).
ALLELE C*05:01: Presents HIV-1 epitope derived from rev (SAEPVPLQL) to CD8-positive T cells, triggering T cell cytotoxic response.
ALLELE C*06:02: In trophoblasts, interacts with KIR2DS2 on uterine NK cells and triggers NK cell activation, including secretion of cytokines such as GMCSF that enhances trophoblast migration.
ALLELE C*07:02: Plays an important role in the control of chronic CMV infection. Presents immunodominant CMV epitopes derived from IE1 (LSEFCRVL and CRVLCCYVL) and UL28 (FRCPRRFCF), both antigens synthesized during immediate-early period of viral replication. Elicits a strong anti-viral CD8-positive T cell immune response that increases markedly with age.
ALLELE C*08:01: Presents viral epitopes derived from CMV UL83 (VVCAHELVC) and IAV M1 (GILGFVFTL), triggering CD8-positive T cell cytotoxic response.
ALLELE C*12:02: Presents CMV epitope derived from UL83 (VAFTSHEHF) to CD8-positive T cells.
ALLELE C*15:02: Presents CMV epitope derived from UL83 CC (VVCAHELVC) to CD8-positive T cells, triggering T cell cytotoxic response.