Aliases for HK2 Gene
External Ids for HK2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HK2 Gene
Hexokinases phosphorylate glucose to produce glucose-6-phosphate, the first step in most glucose metabolism pathways. This gene encodes hexokinase 2, the predominant form found in skeletal muscle. It localizes to the outer membrane of mitochondria. Expression of this gene is insulin-responsive, and studies in rat suggest that it is involved in the increased rate of glycolysis seen in rapidly growing cancer cells. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
GeneCards Summary for HK2 Gene
HK2 (Hexokinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HK2 include Pediatric Osteosarcoma and Chondroblastoma. Among its related pathways are Galactose metabolism and Central carbon metabolism in cancer. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor and fructokinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is HK1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for HK2 Gene
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of hexose, such as D-glucose and D-fructose, to hexose 6-phosphate (D-glucose 6-phosphate and D-fructose 6-phosphate, respectively) (PubMed:23185017, PubMed:26985301, PubMed:29298880). Mediates the initial step of glycolysis by catalyzing phosphorylation of D-glucose to D-glucose 6-phosphate (PubMed:29298880). Plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of the outer mitochondrial membrane by preventing the release of apoptogenic molecules from the intermembrane space and subsequent apoptosis (PubMed:18350175).
Hexokinases catalyze the first essential step of glucose metabolism, the conversion of the substrate glucose into glucose-6-phosphate. This phosphorylation event directly couples extramitochondrial glycolysis to intramitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.