Aliases for HK1 Gene
External Ids for HK1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HK1 Gene
Hexokinases phosphorylate glucose to produce glucose-6-phosphate, the first step in most glucose metabolism pathways. This gene encodes a ubiquitous form of hexokinase which localizes to the outer membrane of mitochondria. Mutations in this gene have been associated with hemolytic anemia due to hexokinase deficiency. Alternative splicing of this gene results in several transcript variants which encode different isoforms, some of which are tissue-specific. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2016]
GeneCards Summary for HK1 Gene
HK1 (Hexokinase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HK1 include Hemolytic Anemia, Nonspherocytic, Due To Hexokinase Deficiency and Neuropathy, Hereditary Motor And Sensory, Russe Type. Among its related pathways are Galactose metabolism and Pentose Phosphate Pathway (Erythrocyte), Pharmacodynamics. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor and glucokinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is HK2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for HK1 Gene
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of various hexoses, such as D-glucose, D-glucosamine, D-fructose, D-mannose and 2-deoxy-D-glucose, to hexose 6-phosphate (D-glucose 6-phosphate, D-glucosamine 6-phosphate, D-fructose 6-phosphate, D-mannose 6-phosphate and 2-deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate, respectively) (PubMed:1637300, PubMed:25316723, PubMed:27374331). Does not phosphorylate N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PubMed:27374331). Mediates the initial step of glycolysis by catalyzing phosphorylation of D-glucose to D-glucose 6-phosphate (By similarity). Involved in innate immunity and inflammation by acting as a pattern recognition receptor for bacterial peptidoglycan (PubMed:27374331). When released in the cytosol, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine component of bacterial peptidoglycan inhibits the hexokinase activity of HK1 and causes its dissociation from mitochondrial outer membrane, thereby activating the NLRP3 inflammasome (PubMed:27374331).
Hexokinases catalyze the first essential step of glucose metabolism, the conversion of the substrate glucose into glucose-6-phosphate. This phosphorylation event directly couples extramitochondrial glycolysis to intramitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.