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Aliases for HINT2 Gene

Subcategory (RNA class) for HINT2 Gene


Aliases for HINT2 Gene

  • Histidine Triad Nucleotide Binding Protein 2 2 3 5
  • PKCI-1-Related HIT Protein 3 4
  • HIT-17kDa 3 4
  • HINT-2 3 4
  • HINT-3 3 4
  • Histidine Triad Nucleotide-Binding Protein 2, Mitochondrial 3
  • Protein Kinase C Inhibitor-2 3
  • EC 3.-.-.- 4
  • HIT-17 3

External Ids for HINT2 Gene

ORGUL Members for HINT2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HINT2 Gene

  • GC09M036125
  • GC09M035982
  • GC09M035802

Summaries for HINT2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HINT2 Gene

  • Histidine triad proteins, such as HINT2, are nucleotide hydrolases and transferases that act on the alpha-phosphate of ribonucleotides (Brenner, 2002 [PubMed 12119013]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

GeneCards Summary for HINT2 Gene

HINT2 (Histidine Triad Nucleotide Binding Protein 2) is a Protein Coding gene, and is affiliated with the lncRNA class. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and hydrolase activity. An important paralog of this gene is HINT1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HINT2 Gene

  • Hydrolase probably involved in steroid biosynthesis. May play a role in apoptosis. Has adenosine phosphoramidase activity.

Additional gene information for HINT2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HINT2 Gene

Genomics for HINT2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for HINT2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for HINT2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH09J035813 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 +0.8 816 3.1 HDGF FOXA2 MLX ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B YY1 TMEM8B HINT2 RNF38 HMGB3P24 SPAG8 C9orf131 ATP8B5P VCP CREB3
GH09J035726 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.6 +85.1 85064 8.6 YBX1 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC MEF2D TLN1 CREB3 TMEM8B GBA2 PIGO ARHGEF39 TPM2 HMGB3P24 RN7SL22P ENSG00000228843
GH09J035745 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 10.7 +67.2 67197 5.4 ATF1 FOXA2 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 YY1 ETS1 GLIS2 GBA2 RGP1 ENSG00000227388 SPAG8 HINT2 TMEM8B TPM2 MIR6853
GH09J035616 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 9.7 +196.2 196225 6.4 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 SMAD1 RB1 SIN3A STAT5A BATF RFX5 ETS1 CD72 ARHGEF39 RGP1 CCDC107 RN7SL22P SIT1 CA9 RECK FAM166B CREB3
GH09J035904 Enhancer 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.4 -92.7 -92688 7.4 FOXA2 ZNF48 YY1 ZNF121 FOS DEK SP3 RXRA REST PPARG HRCT1 SPAAR TMEM8B PIGO OR13J1 FAM221B NDUFA5P4 ENSG00000227388 NPR2 FANCG
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around HINT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the HINT2 gene promoter:
  • AREB6
  • Lmo2
  • Egr-3
  • oct-B2
  • Oct-B1
  • HNF-1A
  • HNF-1
  • Evi-1
  • oct-B3

Genomic Locations for HINT2 Gene

Genomic Locations for HINT2 Gene
2,520 bases
Minus strand
2,395 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for HINT2 Gene

Genes around HINT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
HINT2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for HINT2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HINT2 Gene

Proteins for HINT2 Gene

  • Protein details for HINT2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5TCW3

    Protein attributes for HINT2 Gene

    163 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    17162 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for HINT2 Gene

neXtProt entry for HINT2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for HINT2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for HINT2 Gene

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for HINT2
  • Boster Bio Antibodies for HINT2

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for HINT2 Gene

Domains & Families for HINT2 Gene

Gene Families for HINT2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for HINT2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HINT2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the HINT family.
  • Belongs to the HINT family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HINT2: view

Function for HINT2 Gene

Molecular function for HINT2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Hydrolase probably involved in steroid biosynthesis. May play a role in apoptosis. Has adenosine phosphoramidase activity.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=128 uM for adenosine 5-O-p-nitrophenylphosphoramidate {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16762638};

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for HINT2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for HINT2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HINT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HINT2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HINT2: view

Animal Models for HINT2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for HINT2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for HINT2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target HINT2

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for HINT2

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HINT2 Gene

Localization for HINT2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HINT2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HINT2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 2
extracellular 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HINT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005730 nucleolus IDA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HINT2: view

Pathways & Interactions for HINT2 Gene

SuperPathways for HINT2 Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for HINT2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HINT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006694 steroid biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006915 apoptotic process IEA --
GO:2000757 negative regulation of peptidyl-lysine acetylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HINT2: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for HINT2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for HINT2 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for HINT2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for HINT2 Gene

Histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for HINT2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HINT2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e
SP1: - - -
SP2: -
SP4: - -
SP6: -

Relevant External Links for HINT2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for HINT2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for HINT2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for HINT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (10.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for HINT2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for HINT2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of HINT2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HINT2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HINT2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: High expression in liver and pancreas. Expression is significantly down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for HINT2 Gene

  • Kidney(4.3)
  • Liver(4.3)
  • Pancreas(4.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HINT2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for HINT2 Gene

Orthologs for HINT2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for HINT2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HINT2 34 33
  • 99.8 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia HINT2 34 33
  • 90.89 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HINT2 34 33
  • 89.78 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Hint2 33
  • 86.25 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hint2 16 34 33
  • 85.55 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia HINT2 34
  • 85 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LOC100859112 33
  • 68.14 (n)
HINT2 34
  • 65 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia HINT2 34
  • 72 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii hint2 34 33
  • 64.86 (n)
Dr.16548 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG2862 34 35
  • 51 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F21C3.3 35
  • 55 (a)
hint-1 34
  • 52 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons HINT 2 33
  • 57.72 (n)
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.2313 33
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.1686 34
  • 50 (a)
Species where no ortholog for HINT2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for HINT2 Gene

Gene Tree for HINT2 (if available)
Gene Tree for HINT2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for HINT2: view image

Paralogs for HINT2 Gene

Paralogs for HINT2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for HINT2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • HINT2_HUMAN Pseudogenes for HINT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HINT2: view

Variants for HINT2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HINT2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1001285126 -- 35,812,685(-) C/G/T downstream_transcript_variant
rs1001508162 -- 35,816,446(-) T/G upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001567843 -- 35,813,022(-) AGAG/AG 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1002579286 -- 35,815,413(-) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1003512502 -- 35,813,967(-) G/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HINT2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1125318 OTHER inversion 24896259

Variation tolerance for HINT2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 57.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.95; 19.60% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for HINT2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HINT2 Gene

Disorders for HINT2 Gene

Additional Disease Information for HINT2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for HINT2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for HINT2 Gene

Publications for HINT2 Gene

  1. Structural characterization of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2, a member of the histidine triad superfamily. (PMID: 23659632) Maize KM … Finzel BC (The FEBS journal 2013) 3 4 58
  2. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson SL … O'Brien SJ (PloS one 2010) 3 44 58
  3. Hint2 is expressed in the mitochondria of H295R cells and is involved in steroidogenesis. (PMID: 18653718) Lenglet S … Rossier MF (Endocrinology 2008) 3 4 58
  4. Hint2, a mitochondrial apoptotic sensitizer down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma. (PMID: 16762638) Martin J … Dufour JF (Gastroenterology 2006) 3 4 58
  5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58

Products for HINT2 Gene

Sources for HINT2 Gene

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