Aliases for HCAR3 Gene

Aliases for HCAR3 Gene

  • Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 3 2 3 4 5
  • HCA3 2 3 4
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor HM74B 3 4
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 109B 3 4
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor HM74 3 4
  • Nicotinic Acid Receptor 2 3 4
  • Niacin Receptor 2 3 4
  • GPR109B 3 4
  • HM74 2 3
  • Hydroxy-Carboxylic Acid Receptor 3 3
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 109B 2
  • Putative Chemokine Receptor 3
  • GTP-Binding Protein 3
  • Puma-G 3
  • NIACR2 4
  • PUMAG 3
  • HCAR3 5
  • HM74B 4

External Ids for HCAR3 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for HCAR3 Gene

  • GPR109B

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HCAR3 Gene

  • GC12M123200

Summaries for HCAR3 Gene

GeneCards Summary for HCAR3 Gene

HCAR3 (Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HCAR3 include Pellagra and Distal Hereditary Motor Neuronopathy Type 2. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G protein-coupled receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is HCAR2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for HCAR3 Gene

  • Receptor for 3-OH-octanoid acid mediates a negative feedback regulation of adipocyte lipolysis to counteract prolipolytic influences under conditions of physiological or pathological increases in beta-oxidation rates. Acts as a low affinity receptor for nicotinic acid. This pharmacological effect requires nicotinic acid doses that are much higher than those provided by a normal diet.

Gene Wiki entry for HCAR3 Gene

Additional gene information for HCAR3 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for HCAR3 Gene

Genomics for HCAR3 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for HCAR3 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH12J122716 Promoter/Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl dbSUPER 650 -0.3 -290 0.6 CEBPA CEBPB FOXA2 SAP130 STAT3 EBF1 NFIL3 HLF POLR2A FOXA3 HCAR3 RF00017-1323 HCAR1
GH12J122714 Promoter/Enhancer 0.7 Ensembl dbSUPER 650.2 +1.5 1510 2.6 IKZF2 CEBPB IKZF1 HCAR3 MIR9902-2 HCAR2 ENSG00000256249
GH12J122678 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 54.6 +36.6 36610 7.6 CEBPG GATAD2A TFE3 SOX13 RCOR2 JUND PRDM1 PKNOX1 RXRB REST RF00004-034 HCAR3 HCAR1 HCAR2 ENSG00000256044 DENR SNRNP35 piR-44050 lnc-KNTC1-3 KNTC1
GH12J122733 Enhancer 0.6 FANTOM5 67.1 -16.9 -16868 0.4 IKZF2 SOX6 RELB NBN TBX21 ATF7 MTA2 TARDBP IKZF1 RAD51 HCAR3 HCAR2 VPS37B CLIP1 RSRC2 C12orf65 HCAR1 RF00017-1324 DENR
GH12J122744 Promoter/Enhancer 0.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl 44 -27.5 -27490 0.6 CTCF HCAR3 HCAR2 VPS37B CLIP1 DENR ENSG00000256044 RF00017-1324 HCAR1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around HCAR3 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for HCAR3

Genomic Locations for HCAR3 Gene

Genomic Locations for HCAR3 Gene
chr12:122,714,756-122,716,811
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
2,056 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr12:123,199,303-123,201,439
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
2,137 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for HCAR3 Gene

Genes around HCAR3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
HCAR3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for HCAR3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HCAR3 Gene

Proteins for HCAR3 Gene

  • Protein details for HCAR3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P49019-HCAR3_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 3
    Protein Accession:
    P49019
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K4G5
    • B2R830
    • E9PI97
    • Q8NGE4

    Protein attributes for HCAR3 Gene

    Size:
    387 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    44478 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for HCAR3 Gene

Post-translational modifications for HCAR3 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for HCAR3 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for HCAR3 Gene

Domains & Families for HCAR3 Gene

Gene Families for HCAR3 Gene

HGNC:
IUPHAR :
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for HCAR3 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HCAR3 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Nicotinic acid receptor 2 (HCAR3_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P49019

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

HCAR3_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HCAR3: view

Function for HCAR3 Gene

Molecular function for HCAR3 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for 3-OH-octanoid acid mediates a negative feedback regulation of adipocyte lipolysis to counteract prolipolytic influences under conditions of physiological or pathological increases in beta-oxidation rates. Acts as a low affinity receptor for nicotinic acid. This pharmacological effect requires nicotinic acid doses that are much higher than those provided by a normal diet.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for HCAR3 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HCAR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G protein-coupled receptor activity TAS,IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HCAR3: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HCAR3: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for HCAR3

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HCAR3 Gene

Localization for HCAR3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR3 Gene

Cell membrane. Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HCAR3 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1
nucleus 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
cytosol 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cell Junctions (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HCAR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 7505609
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0030054 cell junction IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HCAR3: view

Pathways & Interactions for HCAR3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HCAR3: view

Pathways by source for HCAR3 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HCAR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HCAR3: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for HCAR3 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for HCAR3 Gene

(19) Drugs for HCAR3 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Niacin Approved, Investigational Nutra Agonist, Unknown, Full agonist, Target, agonist 432,432
Inositol nicotinate Approved, Withdrawn Pharma Target, agonist 0
Mepenzolate Approved Pharma antagonist 0
D-Tryptophan Experimental Pharma Agonist, Full agonist 0
D-Phenylalanine Experimental Pharma 0

(3) Additional Compounds for HCAR3 Gene - From: IUPHAR

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
1-isopropylbenzotriazole-5-carboxylic acid
Agonist, Full agonist
5-methyl-?àë5-(5-meth?àëylthiophe?àën-3-yl)-4?àë-oxo-4,5-?àëdihydrofu?àëran-2-car?àëboxylic a?àëcid
Agonist, Full agonist
D-phenyalanine
Agonist, Full agonist

(5) Tocris Compounds for HCAR3 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
3,5-DHBA Selective HCA1 agonist 99-10-5
Acifran Hypolipidemic agent; agonist for the GPR109A (HM74A) and GPR109B receptors 72420-38-3
IBC 293 Selective agonist for the GPR109B (HM74) receptor. Antilipolytic 306935-41-1
LUF 6283 HCA2 (GPR109A) partial agonist 92933-48-7
MK 1903 Potent and selective GPR109A (HCA2) agonist 1268882-43-4

(5) ApexBio Compounds for HCAR3 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
3,5-DHBA 1999-10-5
Acifran 72420-38-3
IBC 293 306935-41-1
LUF 6283 92933-48-7
MK 1903 1268882-43-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HCAR3: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for HCAR3 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for HCAR3 Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
12 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
1 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for HCAR3

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HCAR3 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for HCAR3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
HCAR3

Expression for HCAR3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for HCAR3 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

  • Blood (Hematopoietic System)

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for HCAR3

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HCAR3 Gene:

Hs.458425

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HCAR3 Gene:

P49019-HCAR3_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expression largely restricted to adipose tissue and spleen.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for HCAR3 Gene

  • Blood(4.3)
  • Pancreas(4.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HCAR3: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for HCAR3 Gene

Orthologs for HCAR3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for HCAR3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GPR109B 30
  • 98.45 (n)
HCAR3 31
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HCAR3 30
  • 83.55 (n)
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia HCAR3 30
  • 83.03 (n)
-- 31
  • 81 (a)
OneToMany
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Niacr1 31
  • 79 (a)
OneToMany
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 31
  • 75 (a)
OneToMany
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 31
  • 72 (a)
OneToMany
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia hcar2 30
  • 60.23 (n)
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii hcar1-3 30
  • 53.01 (n)
hcar1-2 31
  • 39 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for HCAR3 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for HCAR3 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for HCAR3 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for HCAR3 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for HCAR3: view image

Paralogs for HCAR3 Gene

(15) SIMAP similar genes for HCAR3 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • HCAR3_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HCAR3: view

Variants for HCAR3 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for HCAR3 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 12 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs116821988 - p.Ile317Met
rs118091133 - p.His253Arg
rs1696351 - p.Ile346Met
rs17884481 - p.Phe198Leu
rs1798192 - p.Thr173Pro

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for HCAR3 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HCAR3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv308e214 CNV loss 21293372
esv26589 CNV gain 19812545
esv8582 CNV loss 19470904
nsv913 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv973132 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for HCAR3 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 90.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 13.22; 95.23% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for HCAR3 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
HCAR3

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR3 Gene

Disorders for HCAR3 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for HCAR3 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
pellagra
  • niacin deficiency
distal hereditary motor neuronopathy type 2
  • dsma2
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search HCAR3 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with HCAR3: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for HCAR3 Gene

Publications for HCAR3 Gene

  1. Molecular identification of high and low affinity receptors for nicotinic acid. (PMID: 12522134) Wise A … Pike NB (The Journal of biological chemistry 2003) 3 4 23 26
  2. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXII: Nomenclature and Classification of Hydroxy-carboxylic Acid Receptors (GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B). (PMID: 21454438) Offermanns S … IJzerman AP (Pharmacological reviews 2011) 2 3 4
  3. PUMA-G and HM74 are receptors for nicotinic acid and mediate its anti-lipolytic effect. (PMID: 12563315) Tunaru S … Offermanns S (Nature medicine 2003) 3 23 26
  4. Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding a LD78 receptor and putative leukocyte chemotactic peptide receptors. (PMID: 7505609) Nomura H … Matsushima K (International immunology 1993) 2 3 4
  5. Deorphanization of GPR109B as a receptor for the beta-oxidation intermediate 3-OH-octanoic acid and its role in the regulation of lipolysis. (PMID: 19561068) Ahmed K … Offermanns S (The Journal of biological chemistry 2009) 3 4

Products for HCAR3 Gene

  • Signalway ELISA kits for HCAR3

Sources for HCAR3 Gene