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Aliases for HCAR1 Gene

Aliases for HCAR1 Gene

  • Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 1 2 3 3 5
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 104 2 3
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 81 3 4
  • Lactate Receptor 1 2 3
  • GPR104 3 4
  • GPR81 3 4
  • HCA1 3 4
  • T-Cell Activation G Protein-Coupled Receptor 3
  • Hydroxy-Carboxylic Acid Receptor 1 3
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 104 4
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 81 2
  • TA-GPCR 3
  • FKSG80 3
  • TAGPCR 3
  • LACR1 3

External Ids for HCAR1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for HCAR1 Gene

  • GPR104
  • GPR81

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HCAR1 Gene

  • GC12M123104

Summaries for HCAR1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HCAR1 Gene

  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, or GPRs), such as GPR81, contain 7 transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through heterotrimeric G proteins.[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2005]

GeneCards Summary for HCAR1 Gene

HCAR1 (Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HCAR1 include Late-Onset Retinal Degeneration. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is HCAR2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR1 Gene

  • Acts as a receptor for L-lactate and mediates its anti-lipolytic effect through a G(i)-protein-mediated pathway.

Tocris Summary for HCAR1 Gene

  • Orphan 7-TM receptors (orphan GPCRs) are receptors for which there are no defined ligands. Traditionally, receptors are characterized by specific ligands and stimuli; the search for ligands of orphan receptors is therefore akin to reverse-engineering this process.

Gene Wiki entry for HCAR1 Gene

Additional gene information for HCAR1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HCAR1 Gene

Genomics for HCAR1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for HCAR1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for HCAR1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH12J122729 Promoter/Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 +0.5 534 2.2 SAP130 ARID4B KAT7 ERF CEBPG RAD21 ZBTB40 ZNF205 GATA3 GATAD1 HCAR1 HCAR3 GC12M122727
GH12J122732 Enhancer 0.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl 650.7 -1.5 -1519 0.3 KDM1A RUNX3 SPI1 HCAR1 HCAR3 HCAR2 CLIP1 VPS37B ENSG00000256044
GH12J122751 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 13.3 -21.8 -21779 3.8 CLOCK MLX DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 ZNF213 ZNF143 ZNF263 SP3 NFYC DENR RSRC2 DDX55 EIF2B1 ZCCHC8 ENSG00000272849 HCAR1 HCAR3 LINC01089 ATP6V0A2
GH12J122773 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 10.9 -43.7 -43731 2 INSM2 KLF17 MZF1 SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF335 ZNF121 GLIS2 EGR1 ZNF366 CCDC62 HCAR1 KNTC1 RSRC2 VPS37B HIP1R
GH12J122678 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 12.6 +51.5 51516 2 PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B SIN3A ZNF48 TCF12 FOS SP5 REST HCAR3 HCAR1 ENSG00000256249 ENSG00000274191
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around HCAR1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for HCAR1 Gene

Genomic Locations for HCAR1 Gene
4,768 bases
Minus strand
110,567 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for HCAR1 Gene

Genes around HCAR1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
HCAR1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for HCAR1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HCAR1 Gene

Proteins for HCAR1 Gene

  • Protein details for HCAR1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R9X4
    • Q3Y5J3
    • Q4VBN1
    • Q6NXU5

    Protein attributes for HCAR1 Gene

    346 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39295 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for HCAR1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for HCAR1 Gene

  • Glycosylation at isoforms=3
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for HCAR1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for HCAR1 Gene

Domains & Families for HCAR1 Gene

Gene Families for HCAR1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Transporters

Protein Domains for HCAR1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HCAR1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HCAR1: view

Function for HCAR1 Gene

Molecular function for HCAR1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Acts as a receptor for L-lactate and mediates its anti-lipolytic effect through a G(i)-protein-mediated pathway.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HCAR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HCAR1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HCAR1: view

Animal Models for HCAR1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for HCAR1:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for HCAR1

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for HCAR1

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HCAR1 Gene

Localization for HCAR1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR1 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HCAR1 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HCAR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HCAR1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for HCAR1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for HCAR1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HCAR1: view

Pathways by source for HCAR1 Gene

Interacting Proteins for HCAR1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HCAR1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HCAR1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for HCAR1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for HCAR1 Gene

(14) Drugs for HCAR1 Gene - From: DGIdb, IUPHAR, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Niacin Approved, Investigational Nutra Unknown, Agonist, Full agonist 946,946
3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0
L-lactic acid Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0
3,5-DHBA Pharma Selective HCA1 agonist 0
Acifran Pharma Full agonist, Agonist Hypolipidemic agent; agonist for the GPR109A (HM74A) and GPR109B receptors 0

(3) Additional Compounds for HCAR1 Gene - From: IUPHAR and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
D-lactic ?aeacid
Partial agonist, Agonist
gamma-hydroxybutyric acid
Full agonist, Agonist
TC-G 1008

(5) Tocris Compounds for HCAR1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Diphenyleneiodonium chloride GPR3 agonist; also inhibits NOS and NADPH oxidases 4673-26-1
PF9 tetrasodium salt Potent GPR17 agonist 851265-78-6
Prosaptide TX14(A) Potent GPR37 and GPR37L1 agonist 196391-82-9
TC-G 1008 Potent and selective GPR39 agonist 1621175-65-2
TC-O 9311 Potent and selective GPR139 agonist 444932-31-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HCAR1: view

Transcripts for HCAR1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for HCAR1 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(11) Additional mRNA sequences :
(3) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for HCAR1 Gene

Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for HCAR1

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HCAR1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for HCAR1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for HCAR1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for HCAR1 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for HCAR1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Breast - Mammary Tissue (x12.0), Adipose - Visceral (Omentum) (x7.9), and Bladder (x4.1).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of HCAR1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HCAR1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HCAR1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed abundantly in brown and white fat. It also detectable at lower levels in liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, brain and pituitary. Not detected in frontal, temporal and occipital lobes of the cortex, basal forebrain, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for HCAR1 Gene

  • Spleen(4.1)
  • Kidney(4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HCAR1: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for HCAR1 Gene

Orthologs for HCAR1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for HCAR1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HCAR1 34 33
  • 99.23 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HCAR1 33
  • 84.76 (n)
GPR81 34
  • 79 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia HCAR1 33
  • 83.38 (n)
GPR81 34
  • 81 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gpr81 33
  • 81.85 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gpr81 34 33
  • 81.48 (n)
Hcar1 16
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia HCAR1 34
  • 78 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia HCAR1 34
  • 74 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii hcar1-1 34
  • 39 (a)
Species where no ortholog for HCAR1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for HCAR1 Gene

Gene Tree for HCAR1 (if available)
Gene Tree for HCAR1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for HCAR1: view image

Paralogs for HCAR1 Gene

Paralogs for HCAR1 Gene

(9) SIMAP similar genes for HCAR1 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HCAR1: view

Variants for HCAR1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HCAR1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000666869 -- 122,730,925(-) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000884509 -- 122,731,204(-) A/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001340487 -- 122,728,228(-) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1001520368 -- 122,730,748(-) C/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001559176 -- 122,728,508(-) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HCAR1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv913 CNV insertion 18451855

Variation tolerance for HCAR1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 31.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.34; 53.62% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for HCAR1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HCAR1 Gene

Disorders for HCAR1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for HCAR1 Gene - From: HGMD and DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
late-onset retinal degeneration
  • retinitis pigmentosa
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search HCAR1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for HCAR1

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with HCAR1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for HCAR1 Gene

Publications for HCAR1 Gene

  1. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXII: Nomenclature and Classification of Hydroxy-carboxylic Acid Receptors (GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B). (PMID: 21454438) Offermanns S … IJzerman AP (Pharmacological reviews 2011) 2 3 4 58
  2. Lactate inhibits lipolysis in fat cells through activation of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR81. (PMID: 19047060) Liu C … Lovenberg TW (The Journal of biological chemistry 2009) 2 3 4 58
  3. Discovery and mapping of ten novel G protein-coupled receptor genes. (PMID: 11574155) Lee DK … O'Dowd BF (Gene 2001) 2 3 4 58
  4. Role of GPR81 in lactate-mediated reduction of adipose lipolysis. (PMID: 18952058) Cai TQ … Waters MG (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2008) 2 3 58
  5. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T … Sugano S (Nature genetics 2004) 3 4 58

Products for HCAR1 Gene

Sources for HCAR1 Gene

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