Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for GSTM4 Gene

Aliases for GSTM4 Gene

  • Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 4 2 3 3 5
  • Glutathione S-Transferase M4 2 3
  • GST Class-Mu 4 3 4
  • GST-Mu2 3 4
  • GSTM4-4 3 4
  • Testis Tissue Sperm-Binding Protein Li 60n 3
  • S-(Hydroxyalkyl)Glutathione Lyase M4 3
  • Glutathione S-Aralkyltransferase M4 3
  • Glutathione S-Alkyltransferase M4 3
  • Glutathione S-Aryltransferase M4 3
  • EC 4
  • GTS-Mu2 3
  • GTM4 3

External Ids for GSTM4 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GSTM4 Gene

  • GC01P110677
  • GC01P109128
  • GC01P109300
  • GC01P109497
  • GC01P109910
  • GC01P110000
  • GC01P110198
  • GC01P108086

Summaries for GSTM4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GSTM4 Gene

  • Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-transferase that belongs to the mu class. The mu class of enzymes functions in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding the mu class of enzymes are organized in a gene cluster on chromosome 1p13.3 and are known to be highly polymorphic. These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of certain drugs. Diversification of these genes has occurred in regions encoding substrate-binding domains, as well as in tissue expression patterns, to accommodate an increasing number of foreign compounds. Multiple transcript variants, each encoding a distinct protein isoform, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GSTM4 Gene

GSTM4 (Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GSTM4 include Tinea Pedis. Among its related pathways are Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450 and Cytochrome P450 - arranged by substrate type. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and glutathione transferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GSTM1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM4 Gene

  • Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Active on 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene.

Gene Wiki entry for GSTM4 Gene

Additional gene information for GSTM4 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GSTM4 Gene

Genomics for GSTM4 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GSTM4 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GSTM4 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J109655 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 702.1 +0.1 84 2 HDGF PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZBTB7B YY1 POLR2B E2F8 ZNF143 GSTM4 GSTM1 GSTM2
GH01J109643 Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 31.4 -12.5 -12502 0.7 HDGF ARID4B ZNF2 GLIS2 ZNF213 ARID2 ZNF143 ATF7 DEK RXRA GSTM4 GNAT2 AMPD2 GNAI3 MIR197 ENSG00000225113 RNU6V GSTM3 GC01M109631 RPL7P8
GH01J109631 Enhancer 1.1 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 35.7 -23.7 -23728 2.1 ZIC2 ZNF664 ZFHX2 POLR2A RCOR1 ZNF600 CHD2 EGR2 ZNF189 ZNF398 GC01P109632 PIR40697 GSTM4 GC01M109631 AMPD2
GH01J109667 Promoter/Enhancer 1.8 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 16.3 +12.0 12015 1.4 DRAP1 HDAC1 PKNOX1 USF1 SAP130 NFATC3 ARNT MAX ZBTB40 ZIC2 GSTM2 GSTM4 ENSG00000258634 RPL17P7 PRPF38B RPS27P6 GC01P109672
GH01J109635 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12 -19.6 -19615 1 HDAC1 PKNOX1 FOXA2 RARA RFX5 ZNF366 SMARCC2 RCOR1 FOS ATF7 GSTM4 GSTM5 GSTM1 GC01M109631 GC01P109632 PIR40697
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GSTM4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GSTM4 gene promoter:
  • FOXO4
  • HNF-3beta
  • YY1
  • NF-kappaB2
  • NF-kappaB1
  • NF-kappaB
  • LyF-1
  • Meis-1
  • Meis-1a
  • Meis-1b

Genomic Locations for GSTM4 Gene

Genomic Locations for GSTM4 Gene
18,761 bases
Plus strand
9,426 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GSTM4 Gene

Genes around GSTM4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GSTM4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GSTM4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GSTM4 Gene

Proteins for GSTM4 Gene

  • Protein details for GSTM4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione S-transferase Mu 4
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K765
    • Q05465
    • Q32NC1
    • Q4JNT8
    • Q6FH87

    Protein attributes for GSTM4 Gene

    218 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25561 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GSTM4 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GSTM4 Gene


neXtProt entry for GSTM4 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GSTM4 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GSTM4 Gene

Domains & Families for GSTM4 Gene

Gene Families for GSTM4 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GSTM4 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Mu family.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Mu family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GSTM4: view

Function for GSTM4 Gene

Molecular function for GSTM4 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Active on 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
RX + glutathione = HX + R-S-glutathione.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutathione-S-transferase 4,mu class

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GSTM4 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GSTM4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GSTM4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004364 glutathione transferase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IEA,IPI 25416956
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0019899 enzyme binding IPI 8373352
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IPI 8373352
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM4: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GSTM4: view

Animal Models for GSTM4 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GSTM4:
  • Gstm4 Gstm4<tm2b(EUCOMM)Hmgu>

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GSTM4 Gene

Localization for GSTM4 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM4 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GSTM4 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 2
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytokinetic bridge (2)
  • Cytosol (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GSTM4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 8373352
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS,IDA --
GO:0045171 intercellular bridge IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM4: view

Pathways & Interactions for GSTM4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GSTM4: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GSTM4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006749 glutathione metabolic process IDA 8373352
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
GO:0018916 nitrobenzene metabolic process IEA --
GO:0042178 xenobiotic catabolic process IDA 8373352
GO:1901687 glutathione derivative biosynthetic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM4: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GSTM4 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GSTM4 Gene

(8) Drugs for GSTM4 Gene - From: DrugBank and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glutathione Approved, Investigational Nutra Target 0
Trichloroethylene Approved Pharma 5
Water Approved Pharma 0
1-Hydroxy-2-S-Glutathionyl-3-Para-Nitrophenoxy-Propane Experimental Pharma Target 0
Gamma-Glutamyl[S-(2-Iodobenzyl)Cysteinyl]Glycine Experimental Pharma Target 0

(39) Additional Compounds for GSTM4 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
(1S,2R)-Naphthalene 1,2-oxide
  • (1S,2R)-Naphthalene epoxide
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide
  • 2,2-Dichlorooxirane
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GSTM4: view

Transcripts for GSTM4 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GSTM4 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GSTM4 Gene

Glutathione S-transferase mu 4:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSTM4 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GSTM4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GSTM4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GSTM4 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GSTM4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (21.2) and Testis (7.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for GSTM4 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GSTM4 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GSTM4 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GSTM4 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in a wide variety of tissues.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GSTM4 Gene

  • Muscle(4.5)
  • Lung(4.4)
  • Eye(4.3)
  • Blood(4.2)
  • Liver(2.5)
  • Kidney(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GSTM4: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GSTM4 Gene

Orthologs for GSTM4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GSTM4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GSTM4 34 33
  • 99.39 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gstm4 33
  • 86.09 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gstm4 16 34 33
  • 85.47 (n)
Gstm2 34
  • 81 (a)
Gstm7 34
  • 79 (a)
Gm4845 34
  • 78 (a)
Gm6665 34
  • 78 (a)
Gstm6 34
  • 75 (a)
Gstm3 34
  • 74 (a)
Gstm1 34
  • 72 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LOC615514 33
  • 84.56 (n)
GSTM1 34 34
  • 82 (a)
GSTM4 34
  • 82 (a)
GSTM2 34
  • 80 (a)
-- 34
  • 76 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GSTM1 33
  • 84.1 (n)
-- 34
  • 78 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 71 (a)
-- 34
  • 70 (a)
-- 34
  • 69 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii zgc:173994 34
  • 65 (a)
gstm 34
  • 64 (a)
gstm3 34
  • 63 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gst-1 34
  • 30 (a)
gst-23 34
  • 30 (a)
gst-25 34
  • 26 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 43 (a)
-- 34
  • 40 (a)
-- 34
  • 39 (a)
-- 34
  • 28 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GSTM4 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GSTM4 Gene

Gene Tree for GSTM4 (if available)
Gene Tree for GSTM4 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GSTM4: view image

Paralogs for GSTM4 Gene

Paralogs for GSTM4 Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for GSTM4 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GSTM4: view

Variants for GSTM4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GSTM4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000176947 -- 109,665,711(+) T/C downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000192318 -- 109,664,851(+) G/A genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000412925 -- 109,664,877(+) T/C genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000484939 -- 109,665,256(+) T/C 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000659236 -- 109,658,629(+) A/G intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GSTM4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv15n111 CNV deletion 26073780
dgv253n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv254n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv255n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv256n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv257n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv258n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv259n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv77e212 CNV loss 25503493
esv25172 CNV gain+loss 19812545
esv3587153 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1001758 CNV gain 25217958
nsv2299 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv510951 OTHER complex 20534489
nsv547486 CNV loss 21841781
nsv946133 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for GSTM4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 92.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.54; 29.79% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GSTM4 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM4 Gene

Disorders for GSTM4 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for GSTM4 Gene - From: HGMD and DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
tinea pedis
  • athlete's foot
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GSTM4 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GSTM4

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GSTM4: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GSTM4 Gene

Publications for GSTM4 Gene

  1. Screening for inter-individual splicing differences in human GSTM4 and the discovery of a single nucleotide substitution related to the tandem skipping of two exons. (PMID: 16854533) Denson J … Zhang J (Gene 2006) 3 4 22 58
  2. A T2517C polymorphism in the GSTM4 gene is associated with risk of developing lung cancer. (PMID: 12140136) Liloglou T … Field JK (Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 2002) 3 22 44 58
  3. Isolation and analysis of the gene and cDNA for a human Mu class glutathione S-transferase, GSTM4. (PMID: 8349586) Comstock KE … Henner WD (The Journal of biological chemistry 1993) 3 4 22 58
  4. Deduced amino acid sequence, gene structure and chromosomal location of a novel human class Mu glutathione S-transferase, GSTM4. (PMID: 8471052) Zhong S … Wolf CR (The Biochemical journal 1993) 3 4 22 58
  5. Genetic variants in GSTM3 gene within GSTM4-GSTM2-GSTM1-GSTM5-GSTM3 cluster influence breast cancer susceptibility depending on GSTM1. (PMID: 19856098) Yu KD … Shao ZM (Breast cancer research and treatment 2010) 3 44 58

Products for GSTM4 Gene

Sources for GSTM4 Gene

Loading form....