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Aliases for GSTM3 Gene

Aliases for GSTM3 Gene

  • Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 3 2 3 5
  • Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 3 (Brain) 2 3
  • Glutathione S-Transferase M3 (Brain) 2 3
  • GST Class-Mu 3 3 4
  • EC 4 56
  • HGSTM3-3 3 4
  • GSTM3-3 3 4
  • GST5 3 4
  • Brain Type Mu-Glutathione S-Transferase 3
  • S-(Hydroxyalkyl)Glutathione Lyase M3 3
  • Glutathione S-Aralkyltransferase M3 3
  • Glutathione S-Alkyltransferase M3 3
  • Glutathione S-Aryltransferase M3 3
  • Glutathione S-Transferase, Mu-3 3
  • Brain GST 3
  • GSTB 3
  • GTM3 3

External Ids for GSTM3 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GSTM3 Gene

  • GC01M110758
  • GC01M109208
  • GC01M109381
  • GC01M109577
  • GC01M109576
  • GC01M109988
  • GC01M110276
  • GC01M108146

Summaries for GSTM3 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GSTM3 Gene

  • Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-transferase that belongs to the mu class. The mu class of enzymes functions in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding the mu class of enzymes are organized in a gene cluster on chromosome 1p13.3 and are known to be highly polymorphic. These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of certain drugs. Mutations of this class mu gene have been linked with a slight increase in a number of cancers, likely due to exposure with environmental toxins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GSTM3 Gene

GSTM3 (Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GSTM3 include Pharynx Cancer and Larynx Cancer. Among its related pathways are Glutathione metabolism and Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and enzyme binding. An important paralog of this gene is GSTM1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM3 Gene

  • Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. May govern uptake and detoxification of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics at the testis and brain blood barriers.

Gene Wiki entry for GSTM3 Gene

Additional gene information for GSTM3 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GSTM3 Gene

Genomics for GSTM3 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GSTM3 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GSTM3 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01I109739 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 645.7 +0.8 756 1.8 PKNOX1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A KLF13 SP3 SP5 KAT8 MIER3 SMARCA4 GSTM3 ENSG00000241720 GSTM5
GH01I109711 Promoter/Enhancer 1.4 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 51.2 +28.7 28702 1.5 POLR2A SCRT2 GSTM5 GSTM3 GSTM1 SORT1 ENSG00000241720
GH01I109728 Enhancer 0.9 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 73.1 +11.9 11918 0.9 SREBF1 MITF GATA3 ZNF507 GSTM3 ENSG00000241720 GSTM5
GH01I109761 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 19.6 -23.8 -23791 5.9 ATF1 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B DMAP1 ZNF48 SLC30A9 ZNF766 FOS ATF7 EPS8L3 GSTM3 AHCYL1 ENSG00000228703 AMPD2 ENSG00000254942 GPR61 GNAT2 ENSG00000258634 GNAI3
GH01I109725 Enhancer 1.1 ENCODE dbSUPER 30.6 +15.0 15030 1.6 CLOCK ARNT TCF12 CBX5 GATA2 FOS ATF7 NCOA1 ZNF184 SMARCA4 ENSG00000241720 GSTM3 GSTM5 EPS8L3 ENSG00000228703 AMPD2 AHCYL1 GPR61 ENSG00000225113 AMIGO1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around GSTM3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GSTM3 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for GSTM3 Gene

Genomic Locations for GSTM3 Gene
7,107 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GSTM3 Gene

Genes around GSTM3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GSTM3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GSTM3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GSTM3 Gene

Proteins for GSTM3 Gene

  • Protein details for GSTM3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione S-transferase Mu 3
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O60550
    • Q96HA3

    Protein attributes for GSTM3 Gene

    225 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    26560 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GSTM3 Gene

neXtProt entry for GSTM3 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for GSTM3 Gene


Post-translational modifications for GSTM3 Gene

Other Protein References for GSTM3 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for GSTM3 Gene

Gene Families for GSTM3 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Mu family.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Mu family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GSTM3: view

Function for GSTM3 Gene

Molecular function for GSTM3 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutathione-S-transferase 3,mu class,expressed in brain
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=1.1 mM for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10587441}; KM=0.084 mM for glutathione {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10587441};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
RX + glutathione = HX + R-S-glutathione.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. May govern uptake and detoxification of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics at the testis and brain blood barriers.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GSTM3 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GSTM3 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GSTM3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004364 glutathione transferase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23355646
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0019899 enzyme binding IPI 8373352
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IPI 16189514
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM3: view

Phenotypes for GSTM3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GSTM3: view

Animal Model Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GSTM3 Gene

Localization for GSTM3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM3 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GSTM3 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GSTM3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA,HDA 21630459
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA 8373352
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0035686 sperm fibrous sheath IEA --
GO:0045171 intercellular bridge IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM3: view

Pathways & Interactions for GSTM3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GSTM3: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GSTM3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006749 glutathione metabolic process IDA 8373352
GO:0008065 establishment of blood-nerve barrier TAS 2345169
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
GO:0018916 nitrobenzene metabolic process IDA 8373352
GO:0042178 xenobiotic catabolic process IDA 8373352
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM3: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GSTM3 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GSTM3 Gene

(8) Drugs for GSTM3 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glutathione Approved, Investigational Nutra Target 0
Vitamin E Approved, Vet_approved Nutra Enzyme, inducer 434,438
Cisplatin Approved Pharma Inhibits DNA synthesis,chemotherapy drug, Potent pro-apoptotic anticancer agent; activates caspase-3, Platinum 2906
Cyclophosphamide Approved, Investigational Pharma Nitrogen mustard alkylating agent and prodrug. 3113
Olanzapine Approved, Investigational Pharma Antagonist 408

(41) Additional Compounds for GSTM3 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
(1S,2R)-Naphthalene 1,2-oxide
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GSTM3: view

Transcripts for GSTM3 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GSTM3 Gene

Glutathione S-transferase mu 3 (brain):
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSTM3 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b
SP1: -
SP2: - -

Relevant External Links for GSTM3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GSTM3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GSTM3 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GSTM3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x5.7).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GSTM3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (10.1) and Ovary (6.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for GSTM3 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GSTM3 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GSTM3 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GSTM3 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GSTM3 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Testis and brain.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GSTM3 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Blood(4)
  • Liver(2.4)
  • Lung(2.4)
  • Kidney(2.3)
  • Intestine(2.1)
  • Skin(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GSTM3: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GSTM3 Gene

Orthologs for GSTM3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GSTM3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GSTM3 33 34
  • 99.41 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GSTM3 33 34
  • 89.34 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gstm5 33 16 34
  • 87.88 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GSTM3 33 34
  • 87.11 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100912430 33
  • 86.37 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 79 (a)
-- 34
  • 68 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GSTM3 34
  • 44 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 70 (a)
-- 34
  • 65 (a)
-- 34
  • 57 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii zgc:173994 33 34
  • 67.59 (n)
gstm 34
  • 65 (a)
gstm3 34
  • 64 (a)
wufc26g06 33
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gst-1 34
  • 33 (a)
gst-23 34
  • 32 (a)
gst-25 34
  • 29 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 44 (a)
-- 34
  • 44 (a)
-- 34
  • 43 (a)
-- 34
  • 33 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GSTM3 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GSTM3 Gene

Gene Tree for GSTM3 (if available)
Gene Tree for GSTM3 (if available)

Paralogs for GSTM3 Gene

Paralogs for GSTM3 Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for GSTM3 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins: Pseudogenes for GSTM3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GSTM3: view

Variants for GSTM3 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GSTM3 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000122012 -- 109,740,224(-) T/C intron_variant
rs1000489495 -- 109,739,973(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1000802567 -- 109,735,808(-) A/G 3_prime_UTR_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs1001095643 -- 109,741,117(-) C/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001450001 -- 109,742,202(-) C/T upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GSTM3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1003914 CNV gain 25217958

Variation tolerance for GSTM3 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 56.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.07; 60.85% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GSTM3 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM3 Gene

Disorders for GSTM3 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for GSTM3 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
pharynx cancer
  • pharyngeal cancer
larynx cancer
  • laryngeal benign neoplasm
oral cancer
  • malignant neoplasm of mouth
basal cell carcinoma
  • basal cell cancer
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GSTM3 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GSTM3

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GSTM3: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GSTM3 Gene

Publications for GSTM3 Gene

  1. An international case-control study of glutathione transferase and functionally related polymorphisms and risk of primary adult brain tumors. (PMID: 17372252) Schwartzbaum JA … Feychting M (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2007) 3 22 25 44 58
  2. Genetic variants in GSTM3 gene within GSTM4-GSTM2-GSTM1-GSTM5-GSTM3 cluster influence breast cancer susceptibility depending on GSTM1. (PMID: 19856098) Yu KD … Shao ZM (Breast cancer research and treatment 2010) 3 22 44 58
  3. Genetic polymorphisms in phase I and phase II enzymes and breast cancer risk associated with menopausal hormone therapy in postmenopausal women. (PMID: 19424794) MARIE-GENICA Consortium on Genetic Susceptibility for Menopausal Hormone Therapy Related Breast Cancer Risk (Breast cancer research and treatment 2010) 3 22 44 58
  4. A GSTM3 polymorphism associated with an etiopathogenetic mechanism in Alzheimer disease. (PMID: 18423940) Maes OC … Wang E (Neurobiology of aging 2010) 3 22 44 58
  5. GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTM3 and NAT2 polymorphisms in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a Greek population. (PMID: 19922706) Chatzimichalis M … Bibas A (The Journal of laryngology and otology 2010) 3 22 44 58

Products for GSTM3 Gene

Sources for GSTM3 Gene

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