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Aliases for GSTM2 Gene

Aliases for GSTM2 Gene

  • Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 2 2 3 3 5
  • Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 2 (Muscle) 2 3
  • Glutathione S-Transferase M2 (Muscle) 2 3
  • GST Class-Mu 2 3 4
  • GSTM2-2 3 4
  • GST4 3 4
  • S-(Hydroxyalkyl)Glutathione Lyase M2 3
  • Glutathione S-Aralkyltransferase M2 3
  • Glutathione S-Alkyltransferase M2 3
  • Glutathione S-Aryltransferase M2 3
  • Glutathione S-Transferase M1 3
  • Glutathione S-Transferase 4 3
  • GST, Muscle 3
  • EC 4
  • GTHMUS 3
  • GSTM 3

External Ids for GSTM2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GSTM2 Gene

  • GC01P110689
  • GC01P109140
  • GC01P109312
  • GC01P109509
  • GC01P109922
  • GC01P110013
  • GC01P110210
  • GC01P108098

Summaries for GSTM2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GSTM2 Gene

  • Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-transferase that belongs to the mu class. The mu class of enzymes functions in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding the mu class of enzymes are organized in a gene cluster on chromosome 1p13.3 and are known to be highly polymorphic. These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of certain drugs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GSTM2 Gene

GSTM2 (Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GSTM2 include Testis Seminoma. Among its related pathways are Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450 and Cytochrome P450 - arranged by substrate type. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and enzyme binding. An important paralog of this gene is GSTM1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM2 Gene

  • Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.

Gene Wiki entry for GSTM2 Gene

Additional gene information for GSTM2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GSTM2 Gene

Genomics for GSTM2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GSTM2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GSTM2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J109667 Promoter/Enhancer 1.8 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 660.2 +0.1 69 1.4 DRAP1 HDAC1 PKNOX1 USF1 SAP130 NFATC3 ARNT MAX ZBTB40 ZIC2 GSTM2 GSTM4 ENSG00000258634 RPL17P7 PRPF38B RPS27P6 GC01P109672
GH01J109669 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl 650.7 +1.6 1579 0.4 ZNF740 VEZF1 RUNX3 GABPA GSTM2 GSTM4 GC01P109672
GH01J109482 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 20.9 -183.9 -183918 2.3 CLOCK YBX1 FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 ZNF548 SP3 ATXN7L2 ENSG00000258634 RPL17P7 PRPF38B STRIP1 SYPL2 CLCC1 RPS27P6 RBM15 GSTM2
GH01J109112 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 12.3 -554.5 -554453 2.5 PKNOX1 ATF1 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF2 ZNF48 ZNF766 ARID2 ZNF207 ZNF143 C1orf194 KIAA1324 CLCC1 RPL17P7 GSTM2 LOC100420092
GH01J109983 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.3 +317.1 317081 3.5 MLX DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 GLIS1 NBN NR2C1 AHCYL1 RPL17P7 ENSG00000258634 STRIP1 RBM15 GSTM2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GSTM2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GSTM2 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • c-Jun
  • ATF-2
  • NF-kappaB1
  • NF-kappaB
  • FOXO4
  • HNF-3beta

Genomic Locations for GSTM2 Gene

Genomic Locations for GSTM2 Gene
41,530 bases
Plus strand
41,528 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GSTM2 Gene

Genes around GSTM2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GSTM2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GSTM2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GSTM2 Gene

Proteins for GSTM2 Gene

  • Protein details for GSTM2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione S-transferase Mu 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DRY4
    • E9PEM9
    • Q2M318
    • Q5TZY5
    • Q8WWE1

    Protein attributes for GSTM2 Gene

    218 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25745 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GSTM2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GSTM2 Gene


neXtProt entry for GSTM2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GSTM2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GSTM2 Gene

Domains & Families for GSTM2 Gene

Gene Families for GSTM2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GSTM2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Mu family.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Mu family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GSTM2: view

Function for GSTM2 Gene

Molecular function for GSTM2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
RX + glutathione = HX + R-S-glutathione.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutathione-S-transferase 2 ,mu class,expressed in muscle

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GSTM2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GSTM2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GSTM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004364 glutathione transferase activity TAS --
GO:0004602 glutathione peroxidase activity IDA 16624487
GO:0005102 signaling receptor binding IPI 22406107
GO:0005515 protein binding IEA,IPI 24965446
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GSTM2: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GSTM2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GSTM2

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GSTM2 Gene

Localization for GSTM2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GSTM2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
cytosol 5
nucleus 3
plasma membrane 1
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GSTM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 2034681
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS,IDA --
GO:0016529 sarcoplasmic reticulum IDA 22406107
GO:0045171 intercellular bridge IDA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM2: view

Pathways & Interactions for GSTM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GSTM2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GSTM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006749 glutathione metabolic process IDA 2034681
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
GO:0010880 regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol by sarcoplasmic reticulum IDA 17023043
GO:0010881 regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion IC 17023043
GO:0014809 regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion IC 17023043
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GSTM2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GSTM2 Gene

(7) Drugs for GSTM2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glutathione Approved, Investigational Nutra Target 0
Oxidized glutathione Approved, Experimental, Investigational Pharma Target 0
Trichloroethylene Approved Pharma 5
Water Approved Pharma 0
S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione Experimental Pharma Target 0

(42) Additional Compounds for GSTM2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
(1S,2R)-Naphthalene 1,2-oxide
  • (1S,2R)-Naphthalene epoxide
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide
  • 2,2-Dichlorooxirane
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GSTM2: view

Transcripts for GSTM2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GSTM2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GSTM2 Gene

Glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (muscle):
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSTM2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GSTM2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GSTM2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GSTM2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GSTM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Ovary (9.2) and Retina (7.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for GSTM2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GSTM2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GSTM2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GSTM2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GSTM2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Muscle.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GSTM2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Muscle(4.6)
  • Liver(2.6)
  • Skin(2.5)
  • Blood(2.3)
  • Kidney(2.3)
  • Lung(2.3)
  • Heart(2.2)
  • Intestine(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GSTM2: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GSTM2 Gene

Orthologs for GSTM2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GSTM2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gstm7 33
  • 85.47 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gstm7 16 34 33
  • 84.18 (n)
Gm6665 34
  • 80 (a)
Gstm2 34
  • 79 (a)
Gstm4 34
  • 78 (a)
Gstm3 34
  • 76 (a)
Gstm1 34
  • 75 (a)
Gstm6 34
  • 75 (a)
Gm4845 34
  • 70 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GSTM4 34
  • 78 (a)
GSTM1 34 34
  • 78 (a)
GSTM2 34
  • 77 (a)
-- 34
  • 72 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 73 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 69 (a)
-- 34
  • 69 (a)
-- 34
  • 67 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii zgc:173994 34
  • 64 (a)
gstm 34
  • 63 (a)
gstm3 34
  • 61 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gst-23 34
  • 29 (a)
gst-1 34
  • 29 (a)
gst-25 34
  • 27 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 41 (a)
-- 34
  • 40 (a)
-- 34
  • 40 (a)
-- 34
  • 27 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GSTM2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GSTM2 Gene

Gene Tree for GSTM2 (if available)
Gene Tree for GSTM2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GSTM2: view image

Paralogs for GSTM2 Gene

Paralogs for GSTM2 Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for GSTM2 Gene using alignment to 8 proteins:

  • A8HT81_HUMAN
  • Q0D2I8_HUMAN Pseudogenes for GSTM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GSTM2: view

Variants for GSTM2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GSTM2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000072383 -- 109,677,533(+) G/A genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000866694 -- 109,676,430(+) C/A genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000933050 -- 109,669,444(+) GAGAG/GAG intron_variant
rs1001479157 -- 109,679,190(+) G/A genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1001652092 -- 109,673,371(+) G/C intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GSTM2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv142n106 CNV deletion 24896259
dgv15n111 CNV deletion 26073780
dgv16n111 CNV deletion 26073780
dgv1e213 CNV gain 24956385
dgv253n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv254n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv255n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv256n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv257n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv258n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv259n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv260n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv261n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv262n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv263n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv264n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv265n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv266n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv267n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv268n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv269n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv270n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv271n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv272n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv273n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv3e203 CNV gain+loss 21179565
dgv3n47 CNV loss 21111241
dgv61e199 CNV deletion 23128226
dgv6e180 CNV gain 20482838
dgv77e212 CNV loss 25503493
esv1003982 CNV deletion 20482838
esv2421364 OTHER complex 20811451
esv25172 CNV gain+loss 19812545
esv3257828 CNV deletion 24192839
esv3450949 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3587153 CNV loss 21293372
esv3587154 CNV loss 21293372
esv998761 CNV gain 20482838
nsv1001758 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1003510 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1009692 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1009967 CNV loss 25217958
nsv10617 CNV gain 18304495
nsv1077552 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1161263 CNV deletion 26073780
nsv2310 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv2321 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv276 CNV deletion 15895083
nsv442967 CNV loss 18776908
nsv482081 CNV gain 20164927
nsv508471 CNV deletion 20534489
nsv510951 OTHER complex 20534489
nsv514002 CNV gain 21397061
nsv547486 CNV loss 21841781
nsv547487 CNV gain 21841781
nsv820548 CNV deletion 20802225
nsv824076 CNV loss 20364138
nsv824087 CNV loss 20364138
nsv946134 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv951392 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for GSTM2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 53.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.10; 22.42% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GSTM2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM2 Gene

Disorders for GSTM2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for GSTM2 Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
testis seminoma
  • seminoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GSTM2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GSTM2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GSTM2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GSTM2 Gene

Publications for GSTM2 Gene

  1. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a class-mu glutathione transferase from human muscle, the product of the GST4 locus. (PMID: 2034681) Vorachek WR … Rule GS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1991) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Genetic variants in GSTM3 gene within GSTM4-GSTM2-GSTM1-GSTM5-GSTM3 cluster influence breast cancer susceptibility depending on GSTM1. (PMID: 19856098) Yu KD … Shao ZM (Breast cancer research and treatment 2010) 3 22 44 58
  3. No evidence for glutathione S-transferases GSTA2, GSTM2, GSTO1, GSTO2, and GSTZ1 in breast cancer risk. (PMID: 19859803) Andonova IE … Brauch H (Breast cancer research and treatment 2010) 3 22 44 58
  4. Glutathione S-transferase variants and hypertension. (PMID: 18551009) Delles C … Dominiczak AF (Journal of hypertension 2008) 3 22 44 58
  5. Glutathione pathway genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer survival after platinum-based chemotherapy. (PMID: 20200426) Moyer AM … Weinshilboum RM (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2010) 3 44 58

Products for GSTM2 Gene

Sources for GSTM2 Gene

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