Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-transferase that belongs to the mu class. The mu class of enz... See more...

Aliases for GSTM1 Gene

Aliases for GSTM1 Gene

  • Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 1 2 3 3 4 5
  • Glutathione S-Transferase M1 2 3
  • GST HB Subunit 4 3 4
  • GST Class-Mu 1 3 4
  • EC 4 54
  • GSTM1a-1a 3 4
  • GSTM1b-1b 3 4
  • GSTM1-1 3 4
  • GST1 3 4
  • GTH4 3 4
  • S-(Hydroxyalkyl)Glutathione Lyase 3
  • Glutathione S-Aralkyltransferase 3
  • Glutathione S-Alkyltransferase 3
  • Glutathione S-Aryltransferase 3
  • HB Subunit 4 3
  • GTM1 3
  • MU-1 3
  • H-B 3
  • MU 3

External Ids for GSTM1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GSTM1 Gene

  • GST1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GSTM1 Gene

  • GC01P110709
  • GC01P109159
  • GC01P109332
  • GC01P109529
  • GC01P109942
  • GC01P110031
  • GC01P110231
  • GC01P110232

Summaries for GSTM1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GSTM1 Gene

  • Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-transferase that belongs to the mu class. The mu class of enzymes functions in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding the mu class of enzymes are organized in a gene cluster on chromosome 1p13.3 and are known to be highly polymorphic. These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of certain drugs. Null mutations of this class mu gene have been linked with an increase in a number of cancers, likely due to an increased susceptibility to environmental toxins and carcinogens. Multiple protein isoforms are encoded by transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GSTM1 Gene

GSTM1 (Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GSTM1 include Senile Cataract and Asbestosis. Among its related pathways are Acetaminophen Pathway (therapeutic doses), Pharmacokinetics and Glutathione metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and glutathione transferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GSTM5.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for GSTM1 Gene

  • Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.

Gene Wiki entry for GSTM1 Gene

Additional gene information for GSTM1 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for GSTM1 Gene

Genomics for GSTM1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GSTM1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GSTM1 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GSTM1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GSTM1 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • GR
  • GR-alpha
  • GR-beta

Genomic Locations for GSTM1 Gene

Genomic Locations for GSTM1 Gene
21,244 bases
Plus strand
21,244 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GSTM1 Gene

Genes around GSTM1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GSTM1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GSTM1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GSTM1 Gene

Proteins for GSTM1 Gene

  • Protein details for GSTM1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5GHG0
    • Q6FH88
    • Q8TC98
    • Q9UC96

    Protein attributes for GSTM1 Gene

    218 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25712 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GSTM1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GSTM1 Gene


neXtProt entry for GSTM1 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for GSTM1 Gene


Post-translational modifications for GSTM1 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GSTM1 Gene

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for GSTM1 Gene

Gene Families for GSTM1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GSTM1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • GSTM1 protein (Q16041_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Mu family.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Mu family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GSTM1: view

Function for GSTM1 Gene

Molecular function for GSTM1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=glutathione + RX = a halide anion + an S-substituted glutathione + H(+); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:16437, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:16042, ChEBI:CHEBI:17792, ChEBI:CHEBI:57925, ChEBI:CHEBI:90779; EC=; Evidence=. ;.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutathione-S-transferase 1 ,mu class,deleted in lung and urinary bladder cancer (in dependance on the exposure to carcinogens as cigarette) and in childhood acute leukemia (null allele) in association with CYP1A1*2A

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GSTM1 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GSTM1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GSTM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004364 glutathione transferase activity IDA 8373352
GO:0005515 protein binding IEA --
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0019899 enzyme binding IPI 8373352
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IPI 8373352
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GSTM1: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GSTM1 Gene

Localization for GSTM1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GSTM1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 4
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1
peroxisome 0

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GSTM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA,IEA 8373352
GO:0005829 cytosol IDA,TAS --
GO:0045171 intercellular bridge IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM1: view

Pathways & Interactions for GSTM1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GSTM1: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for GSTM1 Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GSTM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006749 glutathione metabolic process IDA 8373352
GO:0018916 nitrobenzene metabolic process IDA 8373352
GO:0042178 xenobiotic catabolic process IDA 8373352
GO:0070458 cellular detoxification of nitrogen compound IDA 8373352
GO:1901687 glutathione derivative biosynthetic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM1: view

Drugs & Compounds for GSTM1 Gene

(57) Drugs for GSTM1 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Busulfan Approved, Investigational Pharma Enzyme, substrate 617
Oxaliplatin Approved, Investigational Pharma Enzyme, substrate Antitumor agent, Platinum 1803
Cisplatin Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate Inhibits DNA synthesis,chemotherapy drug, Potent pro-apoptotic anticancer agent; activates caspase-3, Platinum 3240
Bleomycin Approved, Investigational Pharma 172
Doxorubicin Approved, Investigational Pharma Topo II inhibitor,immunosuppresive antineoplastic antibiotic 2016

(94) Additional Compounds for GSTM1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
(1S,2R)-Naphthalene 1,2-oxide
  • (1S,2R)-Naphthalene epoxide
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide
  • 2,2-Dichlorooxirane
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GSTM1: view

Transcripts for GSTM1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GSTM1 Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(16) Additional mRNA sequences :
(12) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(8) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSTM1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GSTM1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GSTM1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GSTM1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GSTM1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (11.0), Tonsil (10.0), Ovary (7.2), Skin (6.9), and Gallbladder (6.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for GSTM1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GSTM1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GSTM1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GSTM1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GSTM1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Liver (at protein level).

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GSTM1 Gene

  • Liver(4.6)
  • Intestine(4.5)
  • Heart(4.4)
  • Blood(3)
  • Nervous system(3)
  • Lung(2.6)
  • Muscle(2.6)
  • Skin(2.6)
  • Kidney(2.2)
  • Urine(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GSTM1: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GSTM1 Gene

Orthologs for GSTM1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GSTM1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GSTM1 33 32
  • 99.08 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GSTM1 33 33 32
  • 86.7 (n)
GSTM4 33
  • 86 (a)
GSTM2 33
  • 83 (a)
-- 33
  • 75 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gstm2 17 33 32
  • 85.78 (n)
Gstm7 33
  • 81 (a)
Gstm4 33
  • 80 (a)
Gm6665 33
  • 78 (a)
Gstm1 33
  • 78 (a)
Gstm6 33
  • 78 (a)
Gstm3 33
  • 76 (a)
Gm4845 33
  • 73 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gstm2 32
  • 83.64 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 33
  • 79 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 33
  • 73 (a)
-- 33
  • 70 (a)
-- 33
  • 67 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gstm1 32
  • 65.12 (n)
Str.5827 32
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia gstm2-prov 32
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii zgc:173994 33
  • 66 (a)
gstm 33
  • 65 (a)
gstm3 33
  • 63 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gst-1 33
  • 31 (a)
gst-23 33
  • 30 (a)
gst-25 33
  • 28 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 33
  • 43 (a)
-- 33
  • 43 (a)
-- 33
  • 40 (a)
-- 33
  • 29 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GSTM1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GSTM1 Gene

Gene Tree for GSTM1 (if available)
Gene Tree for GSTM1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GSTM1: view image

Paralogs for GSTM1 Gene

Paralogs for GSTM1 Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for GSTM1 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

  • Q16041_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GSTM1: view

Variants for GSTM1 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM1 Gene

There are two alleles; GSTM1A and GSTM1B which differ in position 173. The sequence shown is that of allele GSTM1A.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GSTM1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1012880758 -- 109,689,410(+) C/G intron_variant
rs1019715646 -- 109,687,712(+) C/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1023808626 -- 109,689,744(+) A/C intron_variant
rs1030746528 -- 109,690,955(+) A/G intron_variant
rs1038446815 -- 109,693,786(+) C/T downstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GSTM1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv142n106 CNV deletion 24896259
dgv15n111 CNV deletion 26073780
dgv16n111 CNV deletion 26073780
dgv1e213 CNV gain 24956385
dgv253n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv254n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv255n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv256n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv257n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv258n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv259n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv260n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv261n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv262n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv263n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv264n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv265n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv266n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv267n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv268n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv269n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv270n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv271n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv272n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv273n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv274n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv275n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv276n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv3e203 CNV gain+loss 21179565
dgv3n47 CNV loss 21111241
dgv500n54 CNV gain 21841781
dgv61e199 CNV deletion 23128226
dgv66n67 CNV gain 20364138
dgv6e180 CNV gain 20482838
dgv77e212 CNV loss 25503493
esv1003982 CNV deletion 20482838
esv2421364 OTHER complex 20811451
esv25172 CNV gain+loss 19812545
esv2530591 CNV loss 19546169
esv2716040 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3257828 CNV deletion 24192839
esv33243 CNV gain 17666407
esv3378880 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3381843 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3584594 CNV loss 24956385
esv3584928 CNV gain 24956385
esv3587154 CNV loss 21293372
esv3587155 CNV loss 21293372
esv3587156 CNV gain 21293372
esv998761 CNV gain 20482838
nsv1000726 CNV gain+loss 25217958
nsv1001758 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1003510 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1003898 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1003914 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1007399 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1009692 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1009967 CNV loss 25217958
nsv10617 CNV gain 18304495
nsv1077552 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv2310 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv2332 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv276 CNV deletion 15895083
nsv435675 CNV deletion 17901297
nsv437937 CNV loss 16468122
nsv442967 CNV loss 18776908
nsv482092 CNV gain 20164927
nsv508471 CNV deletion 20534489
nsv510951 OTHER complex 20534489
nsv514002 CNV gain 21397061
nsv547486 CNV loss 21841781
nsv547487 CNV gain 21841781
nsv820548 CNV deletion 20802225
nsv824076 CNV loss 20364138
nsv824087 CNV loss 20364138
nsv946134 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv951392 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for GSTM1 Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 5.09; 69.01% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GSTM1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

Disorders for GSTM1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(58) MalaCards diseases for GSTM1 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
senile cataract
  • idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis - from asbestos exposure
oral leukoplakia
  • leukoplakia oral
  • oat
larynx cancer
  • laryngeal carcinoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GSTM1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GSTM1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GSTM1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GSTM1 Gene

Publications for GSTM1 Gene

  1. Genetic polymorphisms influence the susceptibility of men to sperm DNA damage associated with exposure to air pollution. (PMID: 19800896) Rubes J … Sram RJ (Mutation research 2010) 3 23 43 56
  2. Influence of GST gene polymorphisms on busulfan pharmacokinetics in children. (PMID: 19584821) Ansari M … Krajinovic M (Bone marrow transplantation 2010) 3 23 43 56
  3. Estrogen receptor 1, glutathione S-transferase P1, glutathione S-transferase M1, and glutathione S-transferase T1 genes with dysmenorrhea in Korean female adolescents. (PMID: 20197727) Woo HY … Lim SW (The Korean journal of laboratory medicine 2010) 3 23 43 56
  4. Renal cell carcinoma Fuhrman grade and histological subtype correlate with complete polymorphic deletion of glutathione S-transferase M1 gene. (PMID: 20083259) De Martino M … Marberger M (The Journal of urology 2010) 3 23 43 56
  5. Influence of class M1 glutathione S-transferase (GST Mu) polymorphism on GST M1 gene expression level and tumor size in oral squamous cell carcinoma. (PMID: 20060357) Koch FP … Brieger J (Oral oncology 2010) 3 23 43 56

Products for GSTM1 Gene

Sources for GSTM1 Gene