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Aliases for GSTA4 Gene

Aliases for GSTA4 Gene

  • Glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 4 2 3 5
  • Glutathione S-Transferase A4-4 3 4
  • Glutathione S-Transferase A4 2 3
  • GST Class-Alpha Member 4 3 4
  • EC 4 56
  • S-(Hydroxyalkyl)Glutathione Lyase A4 3
  • Glutathione S-Aralkyltransferase A4 3
  • Glutathione S-Alkyltransferase A4 3
  • Glutathione S-Aryltransferase A4 3
  • Glutathione Transferase A4-4 3
  • GSTA4-4 3
  • GTA4 3

External Ids for GSTA4 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GSTA4 Gene

  • GC06M052844
  • GC06M052889
  • GC06M052674
  • GC06M052842

Summaries for GSTA4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GSTA4 Gene

  • Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. These enzymes are involved in cellular defense against toxic, carcinogenic, and pharmacologically active electrophilic compounds. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-tranferase belonging to the alpha class. The alpha class genes, which are located in a cluster on chromosome 6, are highly related and encode enzymes with glutathione peroxidase activity that function in the detoxification of lipid peroxidation products. Reactive electrophiles produced by oxidative metabolism have been linked to a number of degenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cataract formation, and atherosclerosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GSTA4 Gene

GSTA4 (Glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Glutathione metabolism and Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and glutathione transferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GSTA2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTA4 Gene

  • Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. This isozyme has a high catalytic efficiency with 4-hydroxyalkenals such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE).

Gene Wiki entry for GSTA4 Gene

Additional gene information for GSTA4 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GSTA4 Gene

Genomics for GSTA4 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GSTA4 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GSTA4 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH06I052992 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 550.8 +0.3 339 4.1 ZFP64 DMAP1 YBX1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC ENSG00000202198 GC06P052997 GSTA4 RN7SK EFHC1 MCM3 ICK GSTA3 GC06P052982
GH06I052908 Promoter/Enhancer 1 EPDnew ENCODE 8.2 +85.7 85734 3.1 SKI RFX1 HLF FOS ZBTB17 GSTA3 GSTA4 GSTA10P
GH06I053685 Enhancer 0.8 dbSUPER 9.9 -691.5 -691510 2.3 FOXA2 ZNF493 ZNF529 ZFP64 ZNF213 ZNF354C ZNF138 ZNF366 ZNF202 ZNF680 LOC105375095 GSTA4 KLHL31 ENSG00000227885
GH06I052928 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 7 +65.7 65743 1.5 FOXA2 ZFP64 TCF12 ZNF766 GATA2 FOS ATF7 SP5 NCOA1 NFIL3 GSTA4 LINC01564 GC06P052940 GSTA3
GH06I052918 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE 8.5 +75.7 75661 3.4 FOXA2 FEZF1 YY1 FOS RXRA NFYC REST SREBF1 NFIL3 MIER3 GSTA4 GSTA3 LRRC1 GC06P052940
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around GSTA4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GSTA4 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for GSTA4 Gene

Genomic Locations for GSTA4 Gene
17,433 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GSTA4 Gene

Genes around GSTA4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GSTA4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GSTA4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GSTA4 Gene

Proteins for GSTA4 Gene

  • Protein details for GSTA4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione S-transferase A4
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RD15
    • Q5T7Q8
    • Q6P4G1
    • Q9BX18
    • Q9H414

    Protein attributes for GSTA4 Gene

    222 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25704 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GSTA4 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GSTA4 Gene


neXtProt entry for GSTA4 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for GSTA4 Gene


Post-translational modifications for GSTA4 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at posLast=127127 and posLast=138138

Other Protein References for GSTA4 Gene

Domains & Families for GSTA4 Gene

Gene Families for GSTA4 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GSTA4 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Alpha family.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Alpha family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GSTA4: view

Function for GSTA4 Gene

Molecular function for GSTA4 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutathione S-transferase,alpha 4,ubiquitously expressed
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
RX + glutathione = HX + R-S-glutathione.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. This isozyme has a high catalytic efficiency with 4-hydroxyalkenals such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GSTA4 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GSTA4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GSTA4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004364 glutathione transferase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IPI 16189514
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IPI 10329152
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTA4: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GSTA4: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for GSTA4 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GSTA4

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GSTA4 Gene

Localization for GSTA4 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTA4 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GSTA4 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GSTA4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTA4: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GSTA4 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GSTA4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GSTA4: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GSTA4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006749 glutathione metabolic process IDA 10329152
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process IDA 10329152
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
GO:1901687 glutathione derivative biosynthetic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTA4: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GSTA4 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GSTA4 Gene

(5) Drugs for GSTA4 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glutathione Approved, Investigational Nutra Target 0
Water Approved Pharma 0
LB42708 Pharma Selective FTase inhibitor, Selective farnesyltransferase (FTase) inhibitor 0
Lonafarnib Pharma Ftase inhibitor,potent and selective 0
Trichloroethylene Pharma 5

(42) Additional Compounds for GSTA4 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 4-Hydroxy-2,3-nonenal
  • 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal
  • 4-Hydroxynon-2-enal
  • 4-Hydroxynonenal
  • trans-4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal
(1S,2R)-Naphthalene 1,2-oxide

(2) ApexBio Compounds for GSTA4 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
LB42708 Selective FTase inhibitor 226929-39-1
Lonafarnib Ftase inhibitor,potent and selective 193275-84-2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GSTA4: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for GSTA4 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GSTA4 Gene

Glutathione S-transferase alpha 4:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSTA4 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d · 5e · 5f · 5g ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^
SP1: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP10: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP11: - - - - - - - -
SP12: - - - - - - - - -
SP13: - - - - -
SP14: - -
SP15: - - - - - - -
SP16: - - -
SP17: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP18: - - -

ExUns: 9a · 9b · 9c · 9d · 9e · 9f

Relevant External Links for GSTA4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GSTA4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GSTA4 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GSTA4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal Gland (x8.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GSTA4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal (19.9), Fetal testis (18.5), and Fetal Brain (6.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for GSTA4 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GSTA4 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GSTA4 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GSTA4 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed at a high level in brain, placenta, and skeletal muscle and much lower in lung and liver.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GSTA4 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Heart(4.3)
  • Muscle(4.3)
  • Pancreas(4.3)
  • Liver(2.4)
  • Skin(2.4)
  • Adrenal gland(2.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GSTA4: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GSTA4 Gene

Orthologs for GSTA4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GSTA4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GSTA4 33 34
  • 99.1 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GSTA4 33 34
  • 91.14 (n)
-- 34
  • 86 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GSTA4 33 34
  • 90.39 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GSTA4 34
  • 63 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GSTA4 34
  • 57 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gsta3 34
  • 50 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GSTA 34
  • 59 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 62 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gstal 34
  • 53 (a)
zgc:173961 34
  • 53 (a)
zgc:173962 34
  • 53 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gst-10 34
  • 26 (a)
gst-41 34
  • 26 (a)
F56A4.4 34
  • 25 (a)
Y45G12C.3 34
  • 25 (a)
F56A4.3 34
  • 22 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 41 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GSTA4 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GSTA4 Gene

Gene Tree for GSTA4 (if available)
Gene Tree for GSTA4 (if available)

Paralogs for GSTA4 Gene

Paralogs for GSTA4 Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for GSTA4 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GSTA4: view

Variants for GSTA4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GSTA4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000210850 -- 52,994,666(-) A/C intron_variant
rs1000360756 -- 52,995,937(-) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000576131 -- 52,979,320(-) A/T intron_variant
rs1000600490 -- 52,984,005(-) C/G/T intron_variant
rs1000728494 -- 52,977,506(-) C/T downstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GSTA4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2759430 CNV loss 17122850

Variation tolerance for GSTA4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 58.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.80; 16.79% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GSTA4 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTA4 Gene

Disorders for GSTA4 Gene

Additional Disease Information for GSTA4

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for GSTA4 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GSTA4 Gene

Publications for GSTA4 Gene

  1. Identification of cDNAs encoding two human alpha class glutathione transferases (GSTA3 and GSTA4) and the heterologous expression of GSTA4-4. (PMID: 9480897) Board PG (The Biochemical journal 1998) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Antioxidant genes, diabetes and dietary antioxidants in association with risk of pancreatic cancer. (PMID: 20097730) Tang H … Li D (Carcinogenesis 2010) 3 22 44 58
  3. Substrate specificity combined with stereopromiscuity in glutathione transferase A4-4-dependent metabolism of 4-hydroxynonenal. (PMID: 20085333) Balogh LM … Atkins WM (Biochemistry 2010) 3 4 22 58
  4. Molecular implications of the human glutathione transferase A-4 gene (hGSTA4) polymorphisms in neurodegenerative diseases. (PMID: 16054170) Coppedè F … Migliore L (Mutation research 2005) 3 22 44 58
  5. Human glutathione transferase A4-4 crystal structures and mutagenesis reveal the basis of high catalytic efficiency with toxic lipid peroxidation products. (PMID: 10329152) Bruns CM … Tainer JA (Journal of molecular biology 1999) 3 4 22 58

Products for GSTA4 Gene

Sources for GSTA4 Gene

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