Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. These enzymes function in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding these enzymes are known to be highly polymorph... See more...

Aliases for GSTA2 Gene

Aliases for GSTA2 Gene

  • Glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 2 2 3 5
  • Glutathione S-Transferase A2 2 3 4
  • GST Class-Alpha Member 2 3 4
  • GST HA Subunit 2 3 4
  • EC 4 51
  • GST-Gamma 3 4
  • GSTA2-2 3 4
  • GST2 3 4
  • GTH2 3 4
  • Testis Tissue Sperm-Binding Protein Li 59n 3
  • S-(Hydroxyalkyl)Glutathione Lyase A2 3
  • Glutathione S-Aralkyltransferase A2 3
  • Glutathione S-Alkyltransferase A2 3
  • Glutathione S-Aryltransferase A2 3
  • Liver GST2 3
  • GSTA2 5
  • GTA2 3

External Ids for GSTA2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GSTA2 Gene

  • GST2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GSTA2 Gene

  • GC06M052617
  • GC06M052662
  • GC06M052723
  • GC06M052614
  • GC06M052446

Summaries for GSTA2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GSTA2 Gene

  • Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. These enzymes function in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding these enzymes are known to be highly polymorphic. These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of some drugs. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-tranferase belonging to the alpha class. The alpha class genes, located in a cluster mapped to chromosome 6, are the most abundantly expressed glutathione S-transferases in liver. In addition to metabolizing bilirubin and certain anti-cancer drugs in the liver, the alpha class of these enzymes exhibit glutathione peroxidase activity thereby protecting the cells from reactive oxygen species and the products of peroxidation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GSTA2 Gene

GSTA2 (Glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GSTA2 include Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia. Among its related pathways are Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450 and Naphthalene metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include glutathione transferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GSTA1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for GSTA2 Gene

  • Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.

Gene Wiki entry for GSTA2 Gene

Additional gene information for GSTA2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for GSTA2 Gene

Genomics for GSTA2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for GSTA2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH06J052761 Promoter/Enhancer 1.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 609.7 +0.5 530 2 GATAD2A CTCF TFE3 RCOR2 RXRB IRF2 CEBPA KMT2B SOX13 FOXA1 GSTA2 GSTA1 piR-42671-001 TMEM14A
GH06J052803 Promoter 0.4 EPDnew 600.3 -40.4 -40361 0.1 RAD21 GSTA1 GSTA2 piR-42671-002
GH06J052723 Enhancer 1.3 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 0.3 +38.1 38055 4 CEBPG GATAD2A CTCF ATF7 REST TFE3 SOX13 NFKBIZ RCOR2 FOXA1 TMEM14A ENSG00000216775 GSTA3 HSALNG0050629 lnc-GSTA2-1 GSTA7P GSTA2
GH06J052745 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 0.4 +17.2 17163 1.4 GATAD2A REST RBFOX2 RXRB SP1 CEBPA SOX13 TCF7 NFE2 FOXA2 GSTA7P lnc-GSTA2-1 GSTA1 piR-34099-015 GSTA2 TMEM14A
GH06J052670 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 0.2 +92.2 92155 1.8 HNRNPL GATAD2A PRDM10 ZNF629 TFE3 NFKBIZ ZNF692 POLR2A RCOR2 BACH1 TMEM14A lnc-GSTA2-3 ENSG00000216775 MCM3 TRAM2 piR-42002-014 GSTA2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GSTA2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GSTA2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GSTA2 gene promoter:
  • C/EBPalpha
  • FOXD1
  • FOXD3
  • HFH-1
  • HNF-1
  • HNF-1A
  • HNF-3beta
  • Pbx1a
  • PPAR-gamma1
  • PPAR-gamma2

Genomic Locations for GSTA2 Gene

Genomic Locations for GSTA2 Gene
13,389 bases
Minus strand
13,483 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GSTA2 Gene

Genes around GSTA2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GSTA2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GSTA2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GSTA2 Gene

Proteins for GSTA2 Gene

  • Protein details for GSTA2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione S-transferase A2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q12759
    • Q16491
    • Q9NTY6

    Protein attributes for GSTA2 Gene

    222 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25664 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer or heterodimer of GSTA1 and GSTA2.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GSTA2 Gene

neXtProt entry for GSTA2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for GSTA2 Gene


Post-translational modifications for GSTA2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GSTA2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for GSTA2
  • Boster Bio Antibodies for GSTA2

Domains & Families for GSTA2 Gene

Gene Families for GSTA2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for GSTA2 Gene

  • Glutathione S-transferase, N-terminal
  • Alpha-class glutathione S-transferase signature

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GSTA2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Glutathione S-transferase (Q16605_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Alpha family.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Alpha family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GSTA2: view

Function for GSTA2 Gene

Molecular function for GSTA2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=glutathione + RX = a halide anion + an S-substituted glutathione + H(+); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:16437, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:16042, ChEBI:CHEBI:17792, ChEBI:CHEBI:57925, ChEBI:CHEBI:90779; EC=;.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutathione S-transferase 2,alpha,expressed in liver,with a proximal promoter essential for the binding of activating transcription factor complexes

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GSTA2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GSTA2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GSTA2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004364 glutathione transferase activity TAS,ISS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTA2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GSTA2: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GSTA2

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GSTA2

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GSTA2 Gene

Localization for GSTA2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTA2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GSTA2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 4
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 1
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GSTA2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTA2: view

Pathways & Interactions for GSTA2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GSTA2: view

Pathways by source for GSTA2 Gene

4 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathways for GSTA2 Gene
  • 2-Naphthylamine and 2-Nitronaphtalene metabolism
  • Dichloroethylene metabolism
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Naphthalene metabolism

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GSTA2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006749 glutathione metabolic process ISS --
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process IBA 21873635
GO:0030855 epithelial cell differentiation IEP 21492153
GO:0035722 interleukin-12-mediated signaling pathway TAS --
GO:1901687 glutathione derivative biosynthetic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTA2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GSTA2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GSTA2 Gene

(18) Drugs for GSTA2 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Busulfan Approved, Investigational Pharma Enzyme, substrate 622
chloroquine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma Agonist, Target, inhibitor 216
Clofibrate Approved, Investigational Pharma Agonist, Enzyme, inhibitor 2
Ethacrynic acid Approved, Investigational Pharma Enzyme, inhibitor 4
Glutathione Approved, Investigational Nutra Target, Enzyme, substrate 0

(41) Additional Compounds for GSTA2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
(1S,2R)-Naphthalene 1,2-oxide
  • (1S,2R)-Naphthalene epoxide
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide
  • 2,2-Dichlorooxirane

(1) ApexBio Compounds for GSTA2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Ezatiostat hydrochloride GST inhibitor 286942-97-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GSTA2: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for GSTA2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GSTA2 Gene

9 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
1 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GSTA2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSTA2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GSTA2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for

Expression for GSTA2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for GSTA2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GSTA2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x18.1), Pancreas (x15.8), and Kidney - Cortex (x10.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GSTA2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreas (24.6), Liver (19.5), and Gallbladder (8.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for GSTA2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GSTA2 Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GSTA2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GSTA2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GSTA2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Liver.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GSTA2 Gene

  • Liver(4.8)
  • Lung(4.4)
  • Blood(4.4)
  • Kidney(3.7)
  • Intestine(3)
  • Stomach(2.8)
  • Pancreas(2.6)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GSTA2: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GSTA2 Gene

Orthologs for GSTA2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GSTA2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GSTA2 30 31
  • 99.4 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC501110 30
  • 78.08 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GSTA5 31
  • 77 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gm10639 31
  • 73 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 31
  • 66 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 31
  • 61 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 31
  • 60 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GSTA 30
  • 69.67 (n)
-- 31
  • 64 (a)
GSTA3 31
  • 63 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 31
  • 68 (a)
-- 31
  • 68 (a)
-- 31
  • 65 (a)
-- 31
  • 65 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gstal 31
  • 54 (a)
zgc:173962 31
  • 54 (a)
zgc:173961 31
  • 53 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gst-41 31
  • 29 (a)
F56A4.3 31
  • 28 (a)
gst-10 31
  • 27 (a)
Y45G12C.3 31
  • 26 (a)
F56A4.4 31
  • 26 (a)
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 31
  • 42 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GSTA2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GSTA2 Gene

Gene Tree for GSTA2 (if available)
Gene Tree for GSTA2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GSTA2: view image

Paralogs for GSTA2 Gene

Paralogs for GSTA2 Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for GSTA2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GSTA2: view

Variants for GSTA2 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for GSTA2 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 06 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs2180314 - p.Ser112Thr
rs2234951 - p.Pro110Ser
rs2266631 - p.Val149Ala
rs6577 - p.Glu210Ala

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for GSTA2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GSTA2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv10661n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv1182e214 CNV gain 21293372
dgv1772e212 CNV loss 25503493
dgv5961n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv5962n100 CNV loss 25217958
esv2436160 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2666271 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2732085 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2752126 CNV gain 17911159
esv2759429 CNV loss 17122850
esv2763990 CNV loss 21179565
esv3609003 CNV loss 21293372
esv3609004 CNV loss 21293372
esv3609005 CNV loss 21293372
esv4858 OTHER sequence alteration 18987735
esv9378 CNV loss 19470904
nsv1020575 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1020891 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1023506 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1023696 CNV loss 25217958
nsv462945 CNV loss 19166990
nsv470818 CNV loss 18288195
nsv523124 CNV loss 19592680
nsv603106 CNV loss 21841781
nsv970121 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for GSTA2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 74.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.29; 53.07% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GSTA2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTA2 Gene

Disorders for GSTA2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for GSTA2 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
periventricular nodular heterotopia
  • periventricular heterotopia
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GSTA2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GSTA2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GSTA2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GSTA2 Gene

Publications for GSTA2 Gene

  1. No evidence for glutathione S-transferases GSTA2, GSTM2, GSTO1, GSTO2, and GSTZ1 in breast cancer risk. (PMID: 19859803) Andonova IE … Brauch H (Breast cancer research and treatment 2010) 3 23 41
  2. The role of GSTA2 polymorphisms and haplotypes in breast cancer susceptibility: a case-control study in the Portuguese population. (PMID: 19639209) Silva SN … Gaspar JF (Oncology reports 2009) 3 23 41
  3. Polymorphisms of glutathione-S-transferase M1 and manganese superoxide dismutase are associated with the risk of malignant pleural mesothelioma. (PMID: 17290392) Landi S … Puntoni R (International journal of cancer 2007) 3 23 41
  4. A comprehensive analysis of phase I and phase II metabolism gene polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer. (PMID: 16006997) Landi S … Bellvitge Colorectal Cancer Study Group (Pharmacogenetics and genomics 2005) 3 23 41
  5. Human glutathione S-transferase A2 polymorphisms: variant expression, distribution in prostate cancer cases/controls and a novel form. (PMID: 15128049) Ning B … Coles B (Pharmacogenetics 2004) 3 23 41

Products for GSTA2 Gene

Sources for GSTA2 Gene