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Aliases for GSTA1 Gene

Aliases for GSTA1 Gene

  • Glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 1 2 3 5
  • Glutathione S-Transferase A1 2 3
  • GST Class-Alpha Member 1 3 4
  • GST HA Subunit 1 3 4
  • GST-Epsilon 3 4
  • GSTA1-1 3 4
  • GTH1 3 4
  • Glutathione S-Transferase Ha Subunit 1 3
  • S-(Hydroxyalkyl)Glutathione Lyase A1 3
  • Glutathione S-Alkyltransferase A1 3
  • Glutathione S-Aryltransferase A1 3
  • Testicular Tissue Protein Li 80 3
  • Glutathione S-Transferase 2 3
  • EC 4
  • GST2 3

External Ids for GSTA1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GSTA1 Gene

  • GC06M052658
  • GC06M052657
  • GC06M052703
  • GC06M052764
  • GC06M052656
  • GC06M052486

Summaries for GSTA1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GSTA1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of a family of enzymes that function to add glutathione to target electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins, and products of oxidative stress. This action is an important step in detoxification of these compounds. This subfamily of enzymes has a particular role in protecting cells from reactive oxygen species and the products of peroxidation. Polymorphisms in this gene influence the ability of individuals to metabolize different drugs. This gene is located in a cluster of similar genes and pseudogenes on chromosome 6. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]

GeneCards Summary for GSTA1 Gene

GSTA1 (Glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GSTA1 include Ovarian Endodermal Sinus Tumor and Ovarian Primitive Germ Cell Tumor. Among its related pathways are Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450 and Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include glutathione transferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GSTA2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTA1 Gene

  • Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.

Gene Wiki entry for GSTA1 Gene

Additional gene information for GSTA1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GSTA1 Gene

Genomics for GSTA1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GSTA1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GSTA1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH06J052803 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 650.7 +0.1 74 0.1 GSTA1 GSTA2 GC06P052798
GH06J052814 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 15.8 -11.5 -11527 1 ELF3 FOXA2 ARID4B DMAP1 ZSCAN9 RAD21 RARA YY1 ZNF335 ZNF143 GSTA6P PIR38149 GSTA1 GSTA3 ICK
GH06J052761 Promoter/Enhancer 1.3 EPDnew ENCODE 12.7 +41.0 40965 2 ELF3 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B RAD21 RARA ZNF614 SMARCC2 THAP11 MIXL1 GSTA2 PIR31925 GSTA1
GH06J052787 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE 16.1 +15.2 15178 2.7 FOXA2 THRB RAD21 EGR1 EGR2 RXRA NFYC REST SP1 CEBPA GSTA1 GSTA7P GC06M052785 PIR59486 GSTA12P
GH06J052856 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 13.6 -52.5 -52544 0.9 ELF3 FOXA2 SAP130 ARID4B ERF ZIC2 ZNF644 RBPJ ZBTB40 TEAD3 GSTA1 GSTA3 ICK GSTA7P GC06P052867 GSTA11P GSTA5
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GSTA1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GSTA1 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • c-Jun
  • ATF-2
  • Nkx2-5
  • Sp1
  • FOXD1
  • HNF-1A
  • HNF-1
  • AP-4
  • Lmo2

Genomic Locations for GSTA1 Gene

Genomic Locations for GSTA1 Gene
12,531 bases
Minus strand
12,531 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GSTA1 Gene

Genes around GSTA1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GSTA1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GSTA1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GSTA1 Gene

Proteins for GSTA1 Gene

  • Protein details for GSTA1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione S-transferase A1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q14750
    • Q5GHF8
    • Q5SZC1

    Protein attributes for GSTA1 Gene

    222 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25631 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer or heterodimer of GSTA1 and GSTA2.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GSTA1 Gene

neXtProt entry for GSTA1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GSTA1 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GSTA1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GSTA1 Gene

Domains & Families for GSTA1 Gene

Gene Families for GSTA1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GSTA1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • The C-terminal domain may form a component of the hydrophobic substrate-binding site, but in contrast appears not to be directly involved in GSH binding and is not absolutely essential for catalytic activity.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Alpha family.
  • The C-terminal domain may form a component of the hydrophobic substrate-binding site, but in contrast appears not to be directly involved in GSH binding and is not absolutely essential for catalytic activity.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Alpha family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GSTA1: view

Function for GSTA1 Gene

Molecular function for GSTA1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
RX + glutathione = HX + R-S-glutathione.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutathione S-transferase 1,alpha,expressed in liver,with a proximal promoter essential for the binding of activating transcription factor complexes

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GSTA1 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GSTA1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GSTA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004364 glutathione transferase activity TAS --
GO:0004602 glutathione peroxidase activity IDA 16624487
GO:0005515 protein binding IEA --
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTA1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GSTA1: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for GSTA1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GSTA1

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GSTA1

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GSTA1 Gene

Localization for GSTA1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTA1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GSTA1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 5
nucleus 3
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GSTA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTA1: view

Pathways & Interactions for GSTA1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GSTA1: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GSTA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006749 glutathione metabolic process IDA 11851347
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
GO:0030855 epithelial cell differentiation IEP 21492153
GO:0043651 linoleic acid metabolic process IDA 16624487
GO:0098869 cellular oxidant detoxification IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTA1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GSTA1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GSTA1 Gene

(29) Drugs for GSTA1 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, FDA Approved Drugs, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Busulfan Approved, Investigational Pharma Enzyme, substrate 569
Glutathione Approved, Investigational Nutra Target, Enzyme, substrate 0
Cyclophosphamide Approved, Investigational Pharma Nitrogen mustard alkylating agent and prodrug. 3113
Azathioprine Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate 190
Curcumin Approved, Investigational Pharma Enzyme, inhibitor Tyrosinase inhibitor 155

(49) Additional Compounds for GSTA1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
(1S,2R)-Naphthalene 1,2-oxide
  • (1S,2R)-Naphthalene epoxide
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide
  • 2,2-Dichlorooxirane
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GSTA1: view

Transcripts for GSTA1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GSTA1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GSTA1 Gene

Glutathione S-transferase alpha 1:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GSTA1

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSTA1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GSTA1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GSTA1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GSTA1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GSTA1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal Gland (x19.8), Liver (x13.9), Kidney - Cortex (x5.4), and Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (x4.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GSTA1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (24.3) and Liver (10.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for GSTA1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GSTA1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GSTA1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GSTA1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Liver.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GSTA1 Gene

  • Liver(4.9)
  • Nervous system(4.2)
  • Kidney(3.2)
  • Adrenal gland(2.9)
  • Intestine(2.9)
  • Gall bladder(2.1)
  • Lung(2)
  • Stomach(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GSTA1: view

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GSTA1 Gene

Orthologs for GSTA1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GSTA1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GSTA1 34 33
  • 99.1 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gsta2 33
  • 79.88 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GSTA2 34 33
  • 78.94 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gsta2 34
  • 76 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 68 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 61 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 60 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 34
  • 65 (a)
GSTA3 34
  • 65 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 69 (a)
-- 34
  • 69 (a)
-- 34
  • 66 (a)
-- 34
  • 65 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii zgc:173962 34
  • 55 (a)
gstal 34
  • 55 (a)
zgc:173961 34
  • 54 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gst-41 34
  • 29 (a)
gst-10 34
  • 27 (a)
F56A4.3 34
  • 27 (a)
Y45G12C.3 34
  • 26 (a)
F56A4.4 34
  • 26 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 42 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GSTA1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GSTA1 Gene

Gene Tree for GSTA1 (if available)
Gene Tree for GSTA1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GSTA1: view image

Paralogs for GSTA1 Gene

Paralogs for GSTA1 Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for GSTA1 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GSTA1: view

Variants for GSTA1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GSTA1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000736745 -- 52,797,560(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1000768383 -- 52,797,833(-) A/T intron_variant
rs1000916103 -- 52,802,563(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1000997845 -- 52,792,807(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant
rs1001348549 -- 52,792,445(-) A/C 3_prime_UTR_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GSTA1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv10661n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv1182e214 CNV gain 21293372
dgv5961n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv5962n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv5963n100 CNV loss 25217958
esv2436160 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2656678 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2666921 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2732085 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2732086 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2752126 CNV gain 17911159
esv2759429 CNV loss 17122850
esv2760993 CNV gain 21179565
esv2763990 CNV loss 21179565
esv3609005 CNV loss 21293372
esv3609008 CNV gain 21293372
esv3890845 CNV gain 25118596
esv4858 OTHER sequence alteration 18987735
esv9378 CNV loss 19470904
nsv1019011 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1032774 CNV gain 25217958
nsv436888 CNV insertion 17901297
nsv462945 CNV loss 19166990
nsv470818 CNV loss 18288195
nsv482096 CNV gain 20164927
nsv603106 CNV loss 21841781
nsv970122 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for GSTA1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 28.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.80; 33.94% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GSTA1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTA1 Gene

Disorders for GSTA1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for GSTA1 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
ovarian endodermal sinus tumor
  • endodermal sinus tumor of ovary
ovarian primitive germ cell tumor
dental fluorosis
  • intrinsic enamel discolouration of fluorosis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GSTA1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GSTA1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GSTA1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GSTA1 Gene

Publications for GSTA1 Gene

  1. Glutathione S-transferase A1 polymorphisms and acute graft-vs.-host disease in HLA-matched sibling allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (PMID: 17425746) Kim I … Kim BK (Clinical transplantation 2007) 3 22 25 44 58
  2. Influence of GST gene polymorphisms on busulfan pharmacokinetics in children. (PMID: 19584821) Ansari M … Krajinovic M (Bone marrow transplantation 2010) 3 22 44 58
  3. Dietary glucosinolate intake, polymorphisms in selected biotransformation enzymes, and risk of prostate cancer. (PMID: 20056632) Steinbrecher A … Linseisen J (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2010) 3 22 44 58
  4. Glutathione S-Transferase P1 (GSTP1) gene polymorphism increases age-related susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma. (PMID: 20331903) Chen YL … Tsai HT (BMC medical genetics 2010) 3 22 44 58
  5. Glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphisms and air pollution as interactive risk factors for asthma in a multicentre Italian field study: A preliminary study. (PMID: 20367187) Piacentini S … Fuciarelli M (Annals of human biology 2010) 3 22 44 58

Products for GSTA1 Gene

  • Boster Bio Antibodies for GSTA1
  • Boster Bio ELISA Kits for GSTA1

Sources for GSTA1 Gene

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