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Aliases for GSC2 Gene

Aliases for GSC2 Gene

  • Goosecoid Homeobox 2 2 3 5
  • GSC-2 3 4
  • GSC-L 3 4
  • GSCL 3 4
  • Homeobox Protein Goosecoid-Like 4
  • Homeobox Protein Goosecoid-2 3
  • Goosecoid-Like 2

External Ids for GSC2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GSC2 Gene

  • GSCL

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GSC2 Gene

  • GC22M017516

Summaries for GSC2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GSC2 Gene

  • Goosecoidlike (GSCL), a homeodomain-containing gene, resides in the critical region for VCFS/DGS on 22q11. Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) is a developmental disorder characterized by conotruncal heart defects, craniofacial anomalies, and learning disabilities. VCFS is phenotypically related to DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and both syndromes are associated with hemizygous 22q11 deletions. Because many of the tissues and structures affected in VCFS/DGS derive from the pharyngeal arches of the developing embryo, it is believed that haploinsufficiency of a gene involved in embryonic development may be responsible for its etiology. The gene is expressed in a limited number of adult tissues, as well as in early human development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GSC2 Gene

GSC2 (Goosecoid Homeobox 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GSC2 include Digeorge Syndrome and Velocardiofacial Syndrome. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include DNA binding transcription factor activity and sequence-specific DNA binding. An important paralog of this gene is GSC.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSC2 Gene

  • May have a role in development. May regulate its own transcription. May bind the bicoid consensus sequence TAATCC.

Additional gene information for GSC2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GSC2 Gene

Genomics for GSC2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GSC2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GSC2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH22I019150 Promoter 0.6 EPDnew 550.8 0.0 -23 0.1 EZH2 GSC2 LINC01311
GH22I019169 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 14 -24.4 -24410 11.2 CLOCK MLX FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 E2F8 ZNF143 ZNF263 SP3 SLC25A1 CLTCL1 GSC2 ESS2 TSSK2 TSSK1A ENSG00000223461 DGCR2 UFD1 RPL7AP70
GH22I019107 Enhancer 1.5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.5 +39.9 39890 4.9 HDGF HNRNPUL1 PKNOX1 CLOCK SMAD1 FOXA2 MLX ARNT ARID4B FEZF1 DGCR2 DGCR11 ESS2 UFD1 RPL7AP70 DGCR8 E2F6P1 GSC2 TBX1 PIR39211
GH22I019168 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 0.4 -18.1 -18060 0 HDAC1 CTCF PKNOX1 CLOCK RB1 ARNT SIN3A RAD21 CTBP1 EGR1 LINC01311 GSC2
GH22I019159 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl 0.4 -9.6 -9618 0.2 MITF BCOR HDAC2 DACH1 TRIM24 ZBTB33 DPF2 SLC25A1 GSC2 LINC01311
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around GSC2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GSC2 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for GSC2 Gene

Genomic Locations for GSC2 Gene
1,708 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GSC2 Gene

Genes around GSC2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GSC2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GSC2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GSC2 Gene

Proteins for GSC2 Gene

  • Protein details for GSC2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Homeobox protein goosecoid-2
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for GSC2 Gene

    205 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21545 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GSC2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GSC2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GSC2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GSC2 Gene

Domains & Families for GSC2 Gene

Gene Families for GSC2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Transcription factors

Protein Domains for GSC2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GSC2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the paired homeobox family. Bicoid subfamily.
  • Belongs to the paired homeobox family. Bicoid subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GSC2: view

Function for GSC2 Gene

Molecular function for GSC2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May have a role in development. May regulate its own transcription. May bind the bicoid consensus sequence TAATCC.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GSC2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GSC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000981 RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding IC --
GO:0003677 DNA binding TAS 9441739
GO:0003700 DNA binding transcription factor activity IDA 9700206
GO:0043565 sequence-specific DNA binding IDA 23332764
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSC2: view

Phenotypes for GSC2 Gene

MGI mutant phenotypes for GSC2:
inferred from 2 alleles
GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for GSC2:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GSC2: view

Animal Models for GSC2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GSC2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GSC2 Gene

Localization for GSC2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSC2 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GSC2 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GSC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSC2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GSC2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GSC2 Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GSC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IEA --
GO:0006357 regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA 9700206
GO:0009653 anatomical structure morphogenesis TAS 9150167
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSC2: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for GSC2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GSC2 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for GSC2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GSC2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(0) Additional mRNA sequences :
(1) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GSC2 Gene

Goosecoid homeobox 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSC2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GSC2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GSC2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GSC2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GSC2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x42.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GSC2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adipocyte (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GSC2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GSC2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GSC2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GSC2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GSC2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Detected in adult testis and pituitary, and in 9-10 week fetal tissue (thorax). Probably expressed in other tissues at low levels.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GSC2: view

Primer Products

No data available for Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GSC2 Gene

Orthologs for GSC2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GSC2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gsc2 33 16 34
  • 78.92 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gsc2 33
  • 78.38 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GSC2 34
  • 70 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GSC2 34
  • 46 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GSC2 33 34
  • 65.47 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GSC2 34
  • 48 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gsc2 33
  • 59.05 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC101885810 33
  • 64.34 (n)
zgc:101100 34
  • 19 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Gsc 34
  • 16 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ceh-45 34
  • 26 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GSC2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GSC2 Gene

Gene Tree for GSC2 (if available)
Gene Tree for GSC2 (if available)

Paralogs for GSC2 Gene

Paralogs for GSC2 Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for GSC2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GSC2: view

Variants for GSC2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GSC2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000833361 -- 19,151,594(-) C/G upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000906962 -- 19,151,853(-) A/G upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001099218 -- 19,152,029(-) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001983311 -- 19,149,212(-) G/C intron_variant
rs1003190868 -- 19,148,600(-) A/G downstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GSC2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv2435n106 CNV deletion 24896259
esv3575418 CNV gain 25503493
nsv1056141 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1072198 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv588213 CNV gain 21841781
nsv588216 CNV gain 21841781
nsv834122 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for GSC2 Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 5.00; 68.36% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GSC2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSC2 Gene

Disorders for GSC2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for GSC2 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
digeorge syndrome
  • dgs
velocardiofacial syndrome
  • chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome
chromosomal deletion syndrome
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GSC2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GSC2

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GSC2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GSC2 Gene

Publications for GSC2 Gene

  1. The DiGeorge syndrome minimal critical region contains a goosecoid-like (GSCL) homeobox gene that is expressed early in human development. (PMID: 9150167) Gottlieb S … Budarf ML (American journal of human genetics 1997) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Characterization and mutation analysis of goosecoid-like (GSCL), a homeodomain-containing gene that maps to the critical region for VCFS/DGS on 22q11. (PMID: 9441739) Funke B … Morrow BE (Genomics 1997) 3 4 58
  3. DNA-binding specificities of human transcription factors. (PMID: 23332764) Jolma A … Taipale J (Cell 2013) 3 58
  4. Novel Loci for metabolic networks and multi-tissue expression studies reveal genes for atherosclerosis. (PMID: 22916037) Inouye M … de Bakker PI (PLoS genetics 2012) 3 58
  5. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci influencing human serum metabolite levels. (PMID: 22286219) Kettunen J … Ripatti S (Nature genetics 2012) 44 58

Products for GSC2 Gene

Sources for GSC2 Gene

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