This gene encodes a member of the bombesin-like family of gastrin-releasing peptides. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate two peptides, gastrin-releasing peptide and neuromedin-C. These peptides regulate numerous functions of the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems, including release of gastrointestinal hormones, smooth muscle cell contra... See more...

Aliases for GRP Gene

Aliases for GRP Gene

  • Gastrin Releasing Peptide 2 3 5
  • Gastrin-Releasing Peptide 2 3 4
  • Neuromedin C 2 3
  • Prepro-GRP 2 3
  • Bombesin 2 3
  • Pre-Progastrin Releasing Peptide 3
  • Testicular Tissue Protein Li 103 3
  • PreproGRP 3
  • GRP-10 3
  • ProGRP 3
  • GRP 5
  • BN 3

External Ids for GRP Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GRP Gene

  • GC18P056719
  • GC18P056861
  • GC18P055036
  • GC18P055038
  • GC18P053595

Summaries for GRP Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GRP Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the bombesin-like family of gastrin-releasing peptides. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate two peptides, gastrin-releasing peptide and neuromedin-C. These peptides regulate numerous functions of the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems, including release of gastrointestinal hormones, smooth muscle cell contraction, and epithelial cell proliferation. These peptides are also likely to play a role in human cancers of the lung, colon, stomach, pancreas, breast, and prostate. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes a preproprotein that is proteolytically processed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]

GeneCards Summary for GRP Gene

GRP (Gastrin Releasing Peptide) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GRP include Duodenal Ulcer and Diffuse Pulmonary Fibrosis. Among its related pathways are RET signaling and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include signaling receptor binding and neuropeptide hormone activity. An important paralog of this gene is NMB.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for GRP Gene

  • Stimulates the release of gastrin and other gastrointestinal hormones (By similarity). Contributes to the perception of prurient stimuli and to the transmission of itch signals in the spinal cord that promote scratching behavior. Contributes primarily to nonhistaminergic itch sensation. Contributes to long-term fear memory, but not normal spatial memory. Contributes to the regulation of food intake (By similarity).

Tocris Summary for GRP Gene

  • Bombesin receptors are activated by the endogenous ligands gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), neuromedin B (NMB) and GRP18-27 (neuromedin C). Three subtypes of bombesin receptor are known: BB1, BB2 and an orphan receptor (bb3).

Gene Wiki entry for GRP Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for GRP Gene

Genomics for GRP Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for GRP Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH18J059221 Promoter 1.2 EPDnew Ensembl 600.7 +1.5 1513 1.8 PRDM10 PRDM1 ZIC2 ZSCAN4 ZNF501 EZH2 ZNF600 ZNF341 SCRT2 ZBTB10 GRP NONHSAG023981.2 RAX
GH18J059138 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 10.6 -77.9 -77896 4.7 SP1 HNRNPL CREB1 GATAD2A ATF7 PRDM10 ZNF629 REST TFE3 SIX5 SEC11C NONHSAG023978.2 MALT1 ZNF532 GRP lnc-SEC11C-1
GH18J059155 Enhancer 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE 11 -64.0 -63966 0.8 JUND CEBPB FOS BHLHE40 MAFK NFE2L2 POLR2A GRP SEC11C lnc-SEC11C-1 NONHSAG023978.2
GH18J059179 Enhancer 0.4 Ensembl 11.7 -38.6 -38598 0.8 JUND YY1 KLF1 POLR2A GRP HSALNG0121853 lnc-RAX-2 hsa-miR-5095-247 SEC11C
GH18J059150 Enhancer 0.3 Ensembl 11 -68.9 -68906 0.6 CTCF GRP SEC11C NONHSAG023978.2 lnc-SEC11C-1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GRP on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GRP

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GRP gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • CREB
  • PPAR-gamma1
  • PPAR-gamma2

Genomic Locations for GRP Gene

Genomic Locations for GRP Gene
chr18:59,219,188-59,230,774
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
11,587 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr18:56,887,400-56,898,006
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
10,607 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GRP Gene

Genes around GRP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GRP Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GRP Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GRP Gene

Proteins for GRP Gene

  • Protein details for GRP Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P07492-GRP_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Gastrin-releasing peptide
    Protein Accession:
    P07492
    Secondary Accessions:
    • P07491
    • P81553
    • Q14454
    • Q53YA0
    • Q9BSY7

    Protein attributes for GRP Gene

    Size:
    148 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    16213 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAA52612.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GRP Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GRP Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GRP Gene

Post-translational modifications for GRP Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GRP Gene

Domains & Families for GRP Gene

Gene Families for GRP Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for GRP Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Bombesin-like peptide
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GRP Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP_HUMAN)
  • Galectin-related protein (LEGL_HUMAN)
  • Gastrin-releasing peptide nirs variant 1 (Q5FBX9_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P07492

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GRP_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the bombesin/neuromedin-B/ranatensin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the bombesin/neuromedin-B/ranatensin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GRP: view

Function for GRP Gene

Molecular function for GRP Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Stimulates the release of gastrin and other gastrointestinal hormones (By similarity). Contributes to the perception of prurient stimuli and to the transmission of itch signals in the spinal cord that promote scratching behavior. Contributes primarily to nonhistaminergic itch sensation. Contributes to long-term fear memory, but not normal spatial memory. Contributes to the regulation of food intake (By similarity).

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GRP Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GRP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005102 signaling receptor binding NAS 3027901
GO:0005184 neuropeptide hormone activity IEA,IDA 8756537
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRP: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GRP: view

Animal Models for GRP Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GRP:
  • Grp Grp<tm1Jfb>

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GRP

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GRP

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GRP Gene

Localization for GRP Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRP Gene

Secreted. Cytoplasmic vesicle, secretory vesicle lumen.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GRP gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
cytosol 2
lysosome 2
peroxisome 1
endosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GRP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 3211139
GO:0031410 cytoplasmic vesicle IEA --
GO:0034774 secretory granule lumen ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRP: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GRP Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GRP Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GRP: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for GRP Gene

Activates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GRP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction NAS 3027901
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007218 neuropeptide signaling pathway IEA,IDA 8756537
GO:0035176 social behavior IEA --
GO:0036343 psychomotor behavior IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRP: view

Drugs & Compounds for GRP Gene

(83) Drugs for GRP Gene - From: ApexBio, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Bombesin Investigational Pharma Agonist, Full agonist Involved in gastrointestinal tract function 16
GRP (porcine) Pharma Endogenous GRP receptor agonist 0
BIM 187 Pharma Bombesin/GRP receptor agonist 0
GRP (human) Pharma Endogenous GRP receptor agonist 0

(61) Additional Compounds for GRP Gene - From: Novoseek and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
BA 1
183241-31-8

(5) Tocris Compounds for GRP Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
BA 1 Potent BRS-3 agonist; also NMBR and GRPR agonist 183241-31-8
BIM 187 Bombesin/GRP receptor agonist 137734-88-4
Bombesin Involved in gastrointestinal tract function 31362-50-2
GRP (human) Endogenous GRP receptor agonist 93755-85-2
GRP (porcine) Endogenous GRP receptor agonist 74815-57-9

(1) ApexBio Compounds for GRP Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
GRP (porcine) 74815-57-9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GRP: view

Transcripts for GRP Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GRP Gene

3 REFSEQ mRNAs :
10 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GRP

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRP Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b
SP1:
SP2: -

Relevant External Links for GRP Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GRP

Expression for GRP Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for GRP Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GRP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Hippocampus (x7.3), Stomach (x6.8), and Brain - Substantia nigra (x5.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GRP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal heart (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for GRP Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for GRP Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GRP

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GRP Gene:

Hs.153444

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GRP Gene

  • Lung(4.5)
  • Nervous system(3.9)
  • Pancreas(3.3)
  • Stomach(3.2)
  • Intestine(2.9)
  • Blood(2.6)
  • Adrenal gland(2.5)
  • Kidney(2.4)
  • Liver(2.4)
  • Muscle(2.4)
  • Gall bladder(2.4)
  • Heart(2.3)
  • Skin(2.3)
  • Lymph node(2.1)
  • Thyroid gland(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GRP: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GRP Gene

Orthologs for GRP Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GRP Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GRP 30 31
  • 99.76 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Grp 30
  • 80.43 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Grp 30 17 31
  • 78.35 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GRP 31
  • 69 (a)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GRP 31
  • 68 (a)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GRP 31
  • 44 (a)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GRP 31
  • 38 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GRP 30 31
  • 63.31 (n)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for GRP was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for GRP Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GRP (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GRP (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GRP: view image

Paralogs for GRP Gene

Paralogs for GRP Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GRP: view

Variants for GRP Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for GRP Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 18 pos Variation AA Info Type
773769 Benign: not provided 59,225,682(+) G/T SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
rs1062557 - p.Arg4Ser

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for GRP Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GRP Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1065588 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1144836 CNV deletion 24896259

Variation tolerance for GRP Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 77.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.26; 40.63% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GRP Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GRP

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRP Gene

Disorders for GRP Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(47) MalaCards diseases for GRP Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
duodenal ulcer
  • curling ulcer
diffuse pulmonary fibrosis
gastrinoma
  • gastrin cell tumour
zollinger-ellison syndrome
  • gastrinoma
neuroendocrine tumor
  • neuroendocrine neoplasm
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GRP in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GRP

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GRP: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GRP Gene

Publications for GRP Gene

  1. Association study of 182 candidate genes in anorexia nervosa. (PMID: 20468064) Pinheiro AP … Woodside DB (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2010) 3 41
  2. Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment. (PMID: 19086053) Gratacòs M … Psychiatric Genetics Network Group (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2009) 3 41
  3. Association and linkage analysis of candidate genes GRP, GRPR, CRHR1, and TACR1 in panic disorder. (PMID: 18452185) Hodges LM … Hamilton SP (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2009) 3 41
  4. Usefulness of serum tumor markers, including progastrin-releasing peptide, in patients with lung cancer: correlation with histology. (PMID: 19506400) Molina R … Filella X (Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine 2009) 3 23
  5. GRP-induced up-regulation of Hsp72 promotes CD16+/94+ natural killer cell binding to colon cancer cells causing tumor cell cytolysis. (PMID: 18350254) Taglia L … Benya RV (Clinical & experimental metastasis 2008) 3 23

Products for GRP Gene

Sources for GRP Gene