Aliases for GRN Gene
External Ids for GRN Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GRN Gene
Granulins are a family of secreted, glycosylated peptides that are cleaved from a single precursor protein with 7.5 repeats of a highly conserved 12-cysteine granulin/epithelin motif. The 88 kDa precursor protein, progranulin, is also called proepithelin and PC cell-derived growth factor. Cleavage of the signal peptide produces mature granulin which can be further cleaved into a variety of active, 6 kDa peptides. These smaller cleavage products are named granulin A, granulin B, granulin C, etc. Epithelins 1 and 2 are synonymous with granulins A and B, respectively. Both the peptides and intact granulin protein regulate cell growth. However, different members of the granulin protein family may act as inhibitors, stimulators, or have dual actions on cell growth. Granulin family members are important in normal development, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for GRN Gene
GRN (Granulin Precursor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GRN include Ceroid Lipofuscinosis, Neuronal, 11 and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration With Tdp43 Inclusions, Grn-Related. Among its related pathways are Innate Immune System and Integrated Breast Cancer Pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include growth factor activity.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for GRN Gene
Secreted protein that acts as a key regulator of lysosomal function and as a growth factor involved in inflammation, wound healing and cell proliferation (PubMed:28541286, PubMed:28073925, PubMed:18378771, PubMed:28453791, PubMed:12526812). Regulates protein trafficking to lysosomes and, also the activity of lysosomal enzymes (PubMed:28453791, PubMed:28541286). Facilitates also the acidification of lysosomes, causing degradation of mature CTSD by CTSB (PubMed:28073925). In addition, functions as wound-related growth factor that acts directly on dermal fibroblasts and endothelial cells to promote division, migration and the formation of capillary-like tubule structures (By similarity). Also promotes epithelial cell proliferation by blocking TNF-mediated neutrophil activation preventing release of oxidants and proteases (PubMed:12526812). Moreover, modulates inflammation in neurons by preserving neurons survival, axonal outgrowth and neuronal integrity (PubMed:18378771).
[Granulin-4]: Promotes proliferation of the epithelial cell line A431 in culture.
[Granulin-3]: Inhibits epithelial cell proliferation and induces epithelial cells to secrete IL-8.
[Granulin-7]: Stabilizes CTSD through interaction with CTSD leading to maintain its aspartic-type peptidase activity.