L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that ... See more...

Aliases for GRM2 Gene

Aliases for GRM2 Gene

  • Glutamate Metabotropic Receptor 2 2 3 5
  • GPRC1B 2 3 4
  • MGLUR2 2 3 4
  • Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 2 2 3
  • Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 3 4
  • MGlu2 2 3
  • Glutamate Receptor Homolog 3
  • MGluR2 4
  • GLUR2 3
  • GRM2 5

External Ids for GRM2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GRM2 Gene

  • GC03P050838
  • GC03P050996
  • GC03P051597
  • GC03P051700
  • GC03P051716

Summaries for GRM2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GRM2 Gene

  • L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the basis of sequence homology, putative signal transduction mechanisms, and pharmacologic properties. Group I includes GRM1 and GRM5 and these receptors have been shown to activate phospholipase C. Group II includes GRM2 and GRM3 while Group III includes GRM4, GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8. Group II and III receptors are linked to the inhibition of the cyclic AMP cascade but differ in their agonist selectivities. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2017]

GeneCards Summary for GRM2 Gene

GRM2 (Glutamate Metabotropic Receptor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GRM2 include Central Nervous System Disease and Status Epilepticus. Among its related pathways are Neuroscience and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G protein-coupled receptor activity and glutamate receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GRM3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for GRM2 Gene

  • G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. May mediate suppression of neurotransmission or may be involved in synaptogenesis or synaptic stabilization.

Tocris Summary for GRM2 Gene

  • Metabotropic Glutamate (mGlu) group II receptors are members of the metabotropic class of glutamate receptors, which also includes mGlu group I and mGlu group III receptors. Group II receptors are divided into two subtypes, mGlu2 and mGlu3.

Gene Wiki entry for GRM2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for GRM2 Gene

Genomics for GRM2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for GRM2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH03J051706 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 604.8 +0.0 33 1.4 GATAD2A REST TFE3 NFKBIZ RFX5 POLR2A RXRB IRF2 KMT2B SOX13 GRM2 piR-36601 IQCF6
GH03J051383 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 5.9 -318.6 -318567 10.6 SP1 HNRNPL CREB1 GATAD2A CTCF PRDM10 ZNF629 TFE3 SIX5 ZNF692 MANF piR-35798 piR-37011 RRP9 DCAF1 RAD54L2 TEX264 GRM2 CACNA2D2 GPR62
GH03J051668 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 5 -36.1 -36065 4.4 SP1 HNRNPL GATAD2A CTCF TEAD4 ZNF629 TFE3 RFX1 IKZF1 ZNF692 TEX264 ENSG00000288063 DCAF1 RNU6ATAC29P RBM15B RAD54L2 DOCK3 GRM2 piR-48341
GH03J051498 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 4.7 -206.9 -206889 3.6 BRCA1 SP1 CREB1 PRDM10 REST ZNF629 TFE3 SIX5 IKZF1 NFKBIZ lnc-RAD54L2-5 DCAF1 RNU6ATAC29P DOCK3 GRM2 piR-57133-423 RBM15B
GH03J051620 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 5.7 -85.2 -85167 3.8 GATAD2A REST ZNF7 RXRB SP1 CEBPA SOX13 CEBPB ETS1 RUNX3 TEX264 DCAF1 NT5DC2 GRM2 RF00619-023 RNU6ATAC29P RF00017-4011 RAD54L2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GRM2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GRM2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GRM2 gene promoter:
  • c-Ets-1
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB
  • GATA-2
  • Nkx2-5
  • Pax-2
  • Pax-2a
  • Pax-5
  • ZID

Genomic Locations for GRM2 Gene

Genomic Locations for GRM2 Gene
chr3:51,707,068-51,718,616
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
11,549 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr3:51,741,081-51,752,629
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
11,549 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GRM2 Gene

Genes around GRM2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GRM2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GRM2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GRM2 Gene

Proteins for GRM2 Gene

  • Protein details for GRM2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q14416-GRM2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q14416
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B0M0K7
    • Q14CU5
    • Q52MC6
    • Q9H3N6

    Protein attributes for GRM2 Gene

    Size:
    872 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    95568 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with TAMALIN (By similarity). Interacts with HTR2A.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GRM2 Gene

neXtProt entry for GRM2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GRM2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn203, Asn286, Asn338, Asn402, and Asn547
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GRM2 Gene

Domains & Families for GRM2 Gene

Gene Families for GRM2 Gene

HGNC:
IUPHAR :
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for GRM2 Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Metabotropic glutamate receptor signature
  • G-protein coupled receptors family 3 (Metabotropic glutamate receptor-like)
  • Extracellular ligand-binding receptor
  • Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 signature
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GRM2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (GRM2_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q14416

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GRM2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GRM2: view

Function for GRM2 Gene

Molecular function for GRM2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. May mediate suppression of neurotransmission or may be involved in synaptogenesis or synaptic stabilization.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
metabotropic glutamate receptor 2,group II,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,expressed in fetal and adult brain,linked to the inhibition of cAMP cascade

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GRM2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001641 group II metabotropic glutamate receptor activity IBA 21873635
GO:0004930 G protein-coupled receptor activity IEA,TAS 7620613
GO:0005246 calcium channel regulator activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 18297054
GO:0008066 glutamate receptor activity TAS 7620613
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GRM2: view

Animal Models for GRM2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GRM2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for GRM2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GRM2

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GRM2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GRM2 Gene

Localization for GRM2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM2 Gene

Cell membrane. Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell junction, synapse. Cell projection, dendrite.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GRM2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
cytosol 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA,TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS,IBA 21873635
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0030054 cell junction IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GRM2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GRM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GRM2: view

Pathways by source for GRM2 Gene

3 Qiagen pathways for GRM2 Gene
  • CREB Pathway
  • Neuropathic Pain-Signaling in Dorsal Horn Neurons
  • Signaling in Gap Junctions
2 Cell Signaling Technology pathways for GRM2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA,TAS --
GO:0007194 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity TAS 7620613
GO:0007196 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007216 G protein-coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GRM2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GRM2 Gene

(151) Drugs for GRM2 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glutamic acid Approved Nutra Agonist, Full agonist, antagonist 304
L-Glutamine Approved, Investigational Nutra Agonist, Full agonist 0
Spaglumic acid Experimental Pharma Selective mGlu3 agonist 0
(S)-MCPG Experimental Pharma 0
LY2140023 Investigational Pharma Target 0

(5) Additional Compounds for GRM2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(5) Tocris Compounds for GRM2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
DCG IV Very potent, selective group II mGlu agonist. Also NMDA agonist 147782-19-2
L-CCG-l Potent group II mGlu agonist 117857-93-9
MAP4 Potent group II mGlu agonist. Also specific group III mGlu antagonist 157381-42-5
Spaglumic acid Selective mGlu3 agonist 3106-85-2
Xanthurenic acid Selectively activates group II mGlu receptors 59-00-7

(105) ApexBio Compounds for GRM2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
(±)-LY 395756 852679-66-4
(±)-trans-ACPD 67684-64-4
(1S,3R)-ACPD 111900-32-4
(2R,4R)-APDC group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist 169209-63-6
(R)-3,4-DCPG 201730-10-1
(R)-3-Carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycine 13861-03-5
(RS)-3,4-DCPG 176796-64-8
(RS)-3,5-DHPG 19641-83-9
(RS)-3-Hydroxyphenylglycine 31932-87-3
(RS)-4-Carboxy-3-hydroxyphenylglycine 134052-66-7
(RS)-4-Carboxyphenylglycine 7292-81-1
(RS)-APICA 170847-18-4
(RS)-MCPG 146669-29-6
(RS)-MCPG disodium salt 1303994-09-3
(RS)-PPG 120667-15-4
(S)-3,4-DCPG 201730-11-2
(S)-3,5-DHPG 162870-29-3
(S)-3-Carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycine 55136-48-6
(S)-3-Hydroxyphenylglycine 71301-82-1
(S)-4-Carboxy-3-hydroxyphenylglycine 85148-82-9
(S)-4-Carboxyphenylglycine 134052-73-6
(S)-HexylHIBO 334887-48-8
(S)-MCPG 150145-89-4
3-MATIDA 518357-51-2
ACDPP hydrochloride 37804-11-8
ACPT-I 194918-76-8
ACPT-II 195209-04-2
AIDA 168560-79-0
BINA 866823-73-6
CBiPES hydrochloride 856702-40-4
CDPPB 781652-57-1
CHPG Sodium salt 1303993-73-8
Cinnabarinic acid 606-59-7
CPCCOEt 179067-99-3
CPPG 183364-82-1
D-AP4 78739-01-2
DCB 6971-97-7
DCG IV 147782-19-2
Desmethyl-YM 298198 1177767-57-5
DFB 15332-10-2
DL-AP4 20263-07-4
DL-AP4 Sodium salt 1263093-79-3
DMeOB 40252-74-2
E4CPG 170846-89-6
EGLU 170984-72-2
Fenobam 57653-26-6
HexylHIBO 334887-43-3
JNJ 16259685 409345-29-5
Kynurenic acid 492-27-3
Kynurenic acid sodium salt 2439-02-3
L-AP4 23052-81-5
L-AP6 78944-89-5
L-BMAA hydrochloride 16012-55-8
L-CCG-l 117857-93-9
L-Glutamine 56-85-9
LY 2389575 hydrochloride 885104-09-6
LY 354740 176199-48-7
LY 379268 group II mGlu receptor agonist, highly selective 191471-52-0
LY 456236 hydrochloride 338736-46-2
LY 487379 hydrochloride 353229-59-1
LY341495 Metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist 201943-63-7
MAP4 157381-42-5
MFZ 10-7 1224431-15-5
mGlu2 agonist Anti-depressants,novel potent agent 1311385-32-6
ML 289 1382481-79-9
ML 337 1443118-44-2
MMPIP hydrochloride 479077-02-6
MNI 137 946619-21-2
MNI-caged-L-glutamate 295325-62-1
MSOP 66515-29-5
MSPG 169209-64-7
MTPG 169209-66-9
N-Acetylglycyl-D-glutamic acid 135701-69-8
NPEC-caged-(1S,3R)-ACPD 1315379-60-2
NPEC-caged-(S)-3,4-DCPG 1257323-85-5
NPEC-caged-LY 379268
NPS 2390 226878-01-9
O-Phospho-L-serine 407-41-0
PHCCC 179068-02-1
Ro 01-6128 302841-86-7
Ro 64-5229 246852-46-0
Ro 67-4853 302841-89-0
Ro 67-7476 298690-60-5
RuBi-Glutamate
Salsolinol-1-carboxylic acid 57256-34-5
SIB 1757 31993-01-8
SIB 1893 6266-99-5
Spaglumic acid 3106-85-2
S-Sulfo-L-cysteine sodium salt 7381-67-1
TC-N 22A 1314140-00-5
TCN 238 125404-04-8
UBP1112 339526-74-8
VU 0155041 1093757-42-6
VU 0155041 sodium salt 1259372-69-4
VU 0285683 327056-22-4
VU 0360172 hydrochloride 1309976-62-2
VU 0360223 1274859-33-4
VU 1545 890764-63-3
VU 29 890764-36-0
Xanthurenic acid 59-00-7
YM 202074 299900-84-8
YM 230888 446257-23-4
YM 298198 hydrochloride 1216398-09-2
Z-Cyclopentyl-AP4 103439-17-4
γDGG 6729-55-1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GRM2: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for GRM2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GRM2 Gene

3 REFSEQ mRNAs :
14 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
8 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GRM2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRM2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b
SP1:
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: -
SP4:

Relevant External Links for GRM2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GRM2

Expression for GRM2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for GRM2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GRM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cortex (x9.2), Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (x7.2), Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (x6.5), and Testis (x6.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GRM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (35.5), Frontal cortex (13.2), Platelet (10.4), and Fetal Brain (7.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for GRM2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for GRM2 Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for GRM2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GRM2 Gene:

Hs.121510

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GRM2 Gene:

Q14416-GRM2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Detected in brain cortex (at protein level). Widely expressed in different regions of the adult brain as well as in fetal brain.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GRM2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Eye(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GRM2: view

Primer Products

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GRM2 Gene

Orthologs for GRM2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GRM2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GRM2 31
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GRM2 30 31
  • 92.24 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GRM2 30 31
  • 91.67 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Grm2 30 17 31
  • 90.02 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Grm2 30
  • 89.83 (n)
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GRM2 31
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 31
  • 44 (a)
ManyToMany
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GRM2 30 31
  • 75.73 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GRM2 31
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia grm2 30
  • 72.08 (n)
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii GRM2 (2 of 2) 31
  • 70 (a)
OneToMany
grm2a 30 31
  • 69.7 (n)
OneToMany
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Glu-RA 32
  • 47 (a)
mGluRA 31
  • 44 (a)
OneToMany
CG30361 32
  • 41 (a)
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mgl-1 31 32
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for GRM2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GRM2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GRM2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GRM2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GRM2: view image

Paralogs for GRM2 Gene

Paralogs for GRM2 Gene

(9) SIMAP similar genes for GRM2 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

  • GRM2_HUMAN
  • C9JD41_HUMAN
  • C9JL63_HUMAN
  • H7BXL3_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GRM2: view

Variants for GRM2 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for GRM2 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 03 pos Variation AA Info Type
712700 Benign: not provided 51,712,832(+) C/T SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT,FIVE_PRIME_UTR_VARIANT,INTRON_VARIANT
723255 Likely Benign: not provided 51,715,847(+) C/T MISSENSE_VARIANT,NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT
723665 Benign: not provided 51,715,089(+) A/G MISSENSE_VARIANT,NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT
737829 Likely Benign: not provided 51,712,765(+) C/T MISSENSE_VARIANT,FIVE_PRIME_UTR_VARIANT,INTRON_VARIANT
746062 Likely Benign: not provided 51,715,774(+) T/C NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT,SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for GRM2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GRM2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1008297 CNV insertion 20482838
esv3330449 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3417018 CNV duplication 20981092
nsv508921 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv512802 CNV insertion 21212237
nsv954856 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for GRM2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 17.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.05; 60.65% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GRM2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GRM2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM2 Gene

Disorders for GRM2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(12) MalaCards diseases for GRM2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
central nervous system disease
  • cns
status epilepticus
  • grand mal status
schizophrenia
  • sczd
major depressive disorder
  • mdd
anxiety
  • anxiety disorder
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GRM2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GRM2

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GRM2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GRM2 Gene

Publications for GRM2 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning, functional expression and pharmacological characterization of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2. (PMID: 7620613) Flor PJ … Kuhn R (The European journal of neuroscience 1995) 2 3 4 23
  2. Association analysis of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor genes (GRM2 and GRM3) with mood disorders and fluvoxamine response in a Japanese population. (PMID: 19386277) Tsunoka T … Iwata N (Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry 2009) 3 23 41
  3. Structure and polymorphisms of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2 gene (GRM2): analysis of association with schizophrenia. (PMID: 11317221) Joo A … Fukumaki Y (Molecular psychiatry 2001) 3 23 41
  4. Identification of three residues essential for 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A-metabotropic glutamate 2 (5-HT2A·mGlu2) receptor heteromerization and its psychoactive behavioral function. (PMID: 23129762) Moreno JL … González-Maeso J (The Journal of biological chemistry 2012) 3 4
  5. Identification of neuroglycan C and interacting partners as potential susceptibility genes for schizophrenia in a Southern Chinese population. (PMID: 19367581) So HC … Sham PC (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2010) 3 41

Products for GRM2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for GRM2

Sources for GRM2 Gene