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Aliases for GRM2 Gene

Aliases for GRM2 Gene

  • Glutamate Metabotropic Receptor 2 2 3 5
  • Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 2 2 3
  • GPRC1B 3 4
  • MGLUR2 3 4
  • Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 3
  • Glutamate Receptor Homolog 3
  • MGluR2 4
  • GLUR2 3
  • MGlu2 3

External Ids for GRM2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GRM2 Gene

  • GC03P050838
  • GC03P050996
  • GC03P051597
  • GC03P051700
  • GC03P051716

Summaries for GRM2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GRM2 Gene

  • L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the basis of sequence homology, putative signal transduction mechanisms, and pharmacologic properties. Group I includes GRM1 and GRM5 and these receptors have been shown to activate phospholipase C. Group II includes GRM2 and GRM3 while Group III includes GRM4, GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8. Group II and III receptors are linked to the inhibition of the cyclic AMP cascade but differ in their agonist selectivities. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2017]

GeneCards Summary for GRM2 Gene

GRM2 (Glutamate Metabotropic Receptor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GRM2 include Schizophrenia and Amphetamine Abuse. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and glutamate receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GRM3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM2 Gene

  • G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. May mediate suppression of neurotransmission or may be involved in synaptogenesis or synaptic stabilization.

Tocris Summary for GRM2 Gene

  • Metabotropic Glutamate (mGlu) group II receptors are members of the metabotropic class of glutamate receptors, which also includes mGlu group I and mGlu group III receptors. Group II receptors are divided into two subtypes, mGlu2 and mGlu3.

Gene Wiki entry for GRM2 Gene

Additional gene information for GRM2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GRM2 Gene

Genomics for GRM2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GRM2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GRM2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH03J051707 Promoter 1.6 EPDnew Ensembl 650.7 +0.1 97 0.3 ARID4B SIN3A DNMT3B ZNF48 ZSCAN9 ZNF335 CREM THAP11 MIXL1 NFKBIZ GRM2 PIR59646
GH03J051706 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE 654.9 -0.1 -123 0.1 ELF3 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DNMT3B ZNF48 ZSCAN9 RARA ZNF143 CREM GRM2 RNA5SP132
GH03J051383 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 5.9 -318.8 -318832 9.5 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK SMAD1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 IRF4 MANF PIR60056 DCAF1 RAD54L2 RRP9 LOC101929054 TEX264 GRM2 CACNA2D2 GPR62
GH03J051498 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 4.7 -206.6 -206645 3.9 PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 ZNF766 E2F8 GC03M051486 DCAF1 RNU6ATAC29P RRP9 HEMK1 DOCK3 GRM2
GH03J051668 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 5 -36.2 -36173 4.1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 IRF4 POLR2B ZNF766 ZNF207 ZNF143 TEX264 DCAF1 RRP9 RNU6ATAC29P RBM15B RAD54L2 DOCK3 GRM2 PIR41340 RNA5SP132
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GRM2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GRM2 gene promoter:
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB
  • GATA-2
  • c-Ets-1
  • Pax-5
  • Nkx2-5
  • ZID
  • Pax-2
  • Pax-2a

Genomic Locations for GRM2 Gene

Genomic Locations for GRM2 Gene
chr3:51,707,033-51,718,616
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
11,584 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr3:51,741,081-51,752,629
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
11,549 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GRM2 Gene

Genes around GRM2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GRM2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GRM2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GRM2 Gene

Proteins for GRM2 Gene

  • Protein details for GRM2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q14416-GRM2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q14416
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B0M0K7
    • Q14CU5
    • Q52MC6
    • Q9H3N6

    Protein attributes for GRM2 Gene

    Size:
    872 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    95568 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with GRASP (By similarity). Interacts with HTR2A.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GRM2 Gene

neXtProt entry for GRM2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GRM2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn547, Asn402, isoforms=338, isoforms=286, and Asn203
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Boster Bio Antibodies for GRM2

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GRM2 Gene

Domains & Families for GRM2 Gene

Gene Families for GRM2 Gene

HGNC:
IUPHAR :
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GRM2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q14416

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GRM2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GRM2: view

Function for GRM2 Gene

Molecular function for GRM2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. May mediate suppression of neurotransmission or may be involved in synaptogenesis or synaptic stabilization.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
metabotropic glutamate receptor 2,group II,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,expressed in fetal and adult brain,linked to the inhibition of cAMP cascade

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GRM2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001641 group II metabotropic glutamate receptor activity IEA --
GO:0004871 obsolete signal transducer activity IEA --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA,TAS 7620613
GO:0005246 calcium channel regulator activity IEA,IBA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 18297054
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GRM2: view

Animal Models for GRM2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GRM2:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GRM2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GRM2

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GRM2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GRM2 Gene

Localization for GRM2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell junction, synapse. Cell projection, dendrite.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GRM2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 2
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA,TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 7620613
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GRM2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GRM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GRM2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA,TAS --
GO:0007194 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity TAS 7620613
GO:0007196 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007216 G-protein coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GRM2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GRM2 Gene

(154) Drugs for GRM2 Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, IUPHAR, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Spaglumic acid Approved Pharma Selective mGlu3 agonist 0
Glutamic Acid Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, antagonist 251
L-Glutamine Approved, Investigational Nutra Full agonist, Agonist 0
LY2140023 Investigational Pharma Target 0
Fenobam Investigational Pharma Negative, Allosteric regulator 0

(4) Additional Compounds for GRM2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(5) Tocris Compounds for GRM2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
DCG IV Very potent, selective group II mGlu agonist. Also NMDA agonist 147782-19-2
L-CCG-l Potent group II mGlu agonist 117857-93-9
MAP4 Potent group II mGlu agonist. Also specific group III mGlu antagonist 157381-42-5
Spaglumic acid Selective mGlu3 agonist 3106-85-2
Xanthurenic acid Selectively activates group II mGlu receptors 59-00-7
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GRM2: view

Transcripts for GRM2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GRM2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GRM2 Gene

Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GRM2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRM2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b
SP1:
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: -
SP4:

Relevant External Links for GRM2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GRM2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GRM2

Expression for GRM2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GRM2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GRM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cortex (x9.2), Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (x7.2), Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (x6.5), and Testis (x6.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GRM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (35.5), Frontal cortex (13.2), Platelet (10.4), and Fetal Brain (7.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for GRM2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for GRM2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GRM2 Gene:

GRM2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GRM2 Gene:

Hs.121510

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GRM2 Gene:

Q14416-GRM2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Detected in brain cortex (at protein level). Widely expressed in different regions of the adult brain as well as in fetal brain.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GRM2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GRM2: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GRM2 Gene

Orthologs for GRM2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GRM2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GRM2 34
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GRM2 34 33
  • 92.24 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GRM2 34 33
  • 91.67 (n)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Grm2 16 34 33
  • 90.02 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Grm2 33
  • 89.83 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GRM2 34
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 44 (a)
ManyToMany
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GRM2 34 33
  • 75.73 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GRM2 34
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia grm2 33
  • 72.08 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii GRM2 (2 of 2) 34
  • 70 (a)
OneToMany
grm2a 34 33
  • 69.7 (n)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Glu-RA 35
  • 47 (a)
mGluRA 34
  • 44 (a)
OneToMany
CG30361 35
  • 41 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mgl-1 34 35
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for GRM2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GRM2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GRM2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GRM2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GRM2: view image

Paralogs for GRM2 Gene

Paralogs for GRM2 Gene

(9) SIMAP similar genes for GRM2 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

  • GRM2_HUMAN
  • C9JD41_HUMAN
  • C9JL63_HUMAN
  • H7BXL3_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GRM2: view

Variants for GRM2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GRM2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000075741 -- 51,712,306(+) T/C genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000561474 -- 51,707,566(+) G/T 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000964258 -- 51,710,990(+) G/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001016069 -- 51,714,669(+) TG/ intron_variant
rs1001075427 -- 51,710,762(+) A/C genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GRM2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1008297 CNV insertion 20482838
esv3330449 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3417018 CNV duplication 20981092
nsv508921 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv512802 CNV insertion 21212237
nsv954856 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for GRM2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 17.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.05; 60.65% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GRM2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GRM2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM2 Gene

Disorders for GRM2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for GRM2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
schizophrenia
  • sczd
amphetamine abuse
disease of mental health
  • mental health
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GRM2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GRM2

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GRM2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GRM2 Gene

Publications for GRM2 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning, functional expression and pharmacological characterization of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2. (PMID: 7620613) Flor PJ … Kuhn R (The European journal of neuroscience 1995) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Association analysis of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor genes (GRM2 and GRM3) with mood disorders and fluvoxamine response in a Japanese population. (PMID: 19386277) Tsunoka T … Iwata N (Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry 2009) 3 22 44 58
  3. Structure and polymorphisms of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2 gene (GRM2): analysis of association with schizophrenia. (PMID: 11317221) Joo A … Fukumaki Y (Molecular psychiatry 2001) 3 22 44 58
  4. Identification of three residues essential for 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A-metabotropic glutamate 2 (5-HT2A·mGlu2) receptor heteromerization and its psychoactive behavioral function. (PMID: 23129762) Moreno JL … González-Maeso J (The Journal of biological chemistry 2012) 3 4 58
  5. Identification of neuroglycan C and interacting partners as potential susceptibility genes for schizophrenia in a Southern Chinese population. (PMID: 19367581) So HC … Sham PC (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2010) 3 44 58

Products for GRM2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for GRM2

Sources for GRM2 Gene

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