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Aliases for GRK7 Gene

Aliases for GRK7 Gene

  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 7 2 3 4 5
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase GRK7 3 4
  • GPRK7 3 4
  • Rhodopsin Kinase 3
  • EC 56
  • EC 4
  • EC 2.7.11 56

External Ids for GRK7 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GRK7 Gene

  • GPRK7

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GRK7 Gene

  • GC03P142817
  • GC03P142979
  • GC03P141496
  • GC03P138870

Summaries for GRK7 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GRK7 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is specifically expressed in the retina and the encoded protein has been shown to phosphorylate cone opsins and initiate their deactivation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GRK7 Gene

GRK7 (G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 7) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GRK7 include Usher Syndrome, Type Iid and Congenital Stationary Night Blindness. Among its related pathways are Phototransduction and Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GRK1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRK7 Gene

  • Retina-specific kinase involved in the shutoff of the photoresponse and adaptation to changing light conditions via cone opsin phosphorylation, including rhodopsin (RHO).

Additional gene information for GRK7 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GRK7 Gene

Genomics for GRK7 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GRK7 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GRK7 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH03I141778 Promoter 0.6 EPDnew 550.3 +28.2 28202 0.1 ZBTB33 GC03P141781 GC03P141782 GRK7 PIR31846
GH03I141736 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 10.8 -10.0 -10042 6 PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZBTB7B YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B ZNF766 RNF7 RASA2 ATP1B3 ATP1B3-AS1 GRK7 RNU6-509P ATR
GH03I141828 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 16.7 +80.0 79988 3.3 BCOR KLF1 MAX ZMYM3 FEZF1 CEBPG RFX5 ZNF664 ZNF366 POLR2A GRK7 RNF7 ATP1B3 LOC105374134 PIR31846
GH03I141860 Enhancer 1.2 VISTA ENCODE 10.9 +111.3 111311 1.3 HDAC1 FOXA2 ETV1 BACH1 ZNF644 ZBTB40 FOSL1 L3MBTL2 BHLHE40 NR4A1 RNF7 GRK7 ATP1B3 GC03M141866 LOC105374134
GH03I141795 Enhancer 1.1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 10.3 +47.3 47253 4 TFAP4 USF1 MAX SIN3A POLR2A NFATC1 RUNX3 EZH2 NRF1 HLF ATP1B3 RNF7 GRK7 RASA2 TFDP2 GK5 PIR31846 LOC105374134
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around GRK7 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GRK7 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for GRK7 Gene

Genomic Locations for GRK7 Gene
68,507 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GRK7 Gene

Genes around GRK7 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GRK7 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GRK7 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GRK7 Gene

Proteins for GRK7 Gene

  • Protein details for GRK7 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Rhodopsin kinase
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for GRK7 Gene

    553 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    62212 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts (when prenylated) with PDE6D; this promotes release from membranes.
    • Although the protein is present in a diversity of vertebrates ranging from bony fish to mammals, the mouse and rat orthologous proteins do not exist.

neXtProt entry for GRK7 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for GRK7 Gene


Post-translational modifications for GRK7 Gene

  • Autophosphorylated in vitro at Ser-490. Phosphorylation at Ser-36 is regulated by light and activated by cAMP.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GRK7 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for GRK7 Gene

Gene Families for GRK7 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GRK7 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GPRK subfamily.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GPRK subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GRK7: view

Function for GRK7 Gene

Molecular function for GRK7 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=1.9 uM for rhodopsin {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15946941}; KM=21.4 uM for ATP {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15946941}; Vmax=915 nmol/min/mg enzyme {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15946941};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + [rhodopsin] = ADP + [rhodopsin] phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited by phosphorylation of Ser-36.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Retina-specific kinase involved in the shutoff of the photoresponse and adaptation to changing light conditions via cone opsin phosphorylation, including rhodopsin (RHO).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GRK7 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GRK7 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IEA --
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity IEA --
GO:0004703 G-protein coupled receptor kinase activity IEA --
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016301 kinase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRK7: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GRK7: view

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GRK7

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GRK7 Gene

Localization for GRK7 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRK7 Gene

Membrane; Lipid-anchor.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GRK7 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 3
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GRK7 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0097381 photoreceptor disc membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRK7: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GRK7 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GRK7 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GRK7: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GRK7 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007601 visual perception IEA --
GO:0016310 phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0022400 regulation of rhodopsin mediated signaling pathway TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRK7: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GRK7 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GRK7 Gene

(2) Drugs for GRK7 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Zinc Approved, Investigational Pharma 2430
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist 0

(1) Additional Compounds for GRK7 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GRK7: view

Transcripts for GRK7 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GRK7 Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(2) Additional mRNA sequences :
(3) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GRK7 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 7:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GRK7

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRK7 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GRK7 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GRK7 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GRK7 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GRK7 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Muscle - Skeletal (x4.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GRK7 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Breast (46.0), Plasma (13.1), and Retina (9.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GRK7 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GRK7 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GRK7 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GRK7 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GRK7 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Retinal cones, outer and inner segments.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GRK7 Gene

  • Eye(4.6)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GRK7: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GRK7 Gene

Orthologs for GRK7 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GRK7 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GRK7 34 33
  • 99.28 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOC485693 33
  • 87.34 (n)
GRK7 34
  • 86 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GRK7 33 34
  • 86.78 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GRK7 34
  • 77 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GRK7 34
  • 66 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GRK7 34 33
  • 71.83 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GRK7 34
  • 67 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia grk7 33
  • 66.91 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii grk7a 33 34
  • 63.59 (n)
grk7b 34
  • 58 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Gprk1 34
  • 25 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea grk-2 34
  • 24 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 47 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GRK7 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • mouse (Mus musculus)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GRK7 Gene

Gene Tree for GRK7 (if available)
Gene Tree for GRK7 (if available)

Paralogs for GRK7 Gene

Paralogs for GRK7 Gene

(10) SIMAP similar genes for GRK7 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GRK7: view

Variants for GRK7 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GRK7 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Variation AA Info Type
VAR_040534 A metastatic melanoma sample p.Ser253Phe
rs1000045189 -- 141,793,904(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1000136681 -- 141,802,453(+) G/T intron_variant
rs1000260309 -- 141,768,528(+) C/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000393037 -- 141,817,662(+) A/T downstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GRK7 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv2809e59 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3430042 CNV duplication 20981092
nsv819618 CNV gain 19587683

Variation tolerance for GRK7 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 91.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.99; 74.83% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GRK7 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRK7 Gene

Disorders for GRK7 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for GRK7 Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
usher syndrome, type iid
  • ush2d
congenital stationary night blindness
  • congenital essential nyctalopia
retinitis pigmentosa
  • rp
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GRK7 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GRK7

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GRK7: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GRK7 Gene

Publications for GRK7 Gene

  1. Species-specific differences in expression of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) 7 and GRK1 in mammalian cone photoreceptor cells: implications for cone cell phototransduction. (PMID: 11717351) Weiss ER … Osawa S (The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2001) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Characterization of human GRK7 as a potential cone opsin kinase. (PMID: 11754336) Chen CK … Baehr W (Molecular vision 2001) 2 3 4 22 58
  3. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose JE … Uhl GR (Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2010) 3 44 58
  4. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Amino acid residues in GRK1/GRK7 responsible for interaction with S-modulin/recoverin. (PMID: 18266817) Torisawa A … Kawamura S (Photochemistry and photobiology 2008) 3 22 58

Products for GRK7 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for GRK7

Sources for GRK7 Gene

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