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Aliases for GRK3 Gene

Aliases for GRK3 Gene

  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 3 2 3 5
  • Adrenergic, Beta, Receptor Kinase 2 2 3
  • Beta-ARK-2 3 4
  • ADRBK2 3 4
  • BARK2 3 4
  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 3 4
  • Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Kinase 2 3
  • EC 4

External Ids for GRK3 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GRK3 Gene

  • ADRBK2

Summaries for GRK3 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GRK3 Gene

  • The beta-adrenergic receptor kinase specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and related G protein-coupled receptors. Overall, the beta adrenergic receptor kinase 2 has 85% amino acid similarity with beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1, with the protein kinase catalytic domain having 95% similarity. These data suggest the existence of a family of receptor kinases which may serve broadly to regulate receptor function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GRK3 Gene

GRK3 (G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GRK3 include Whim Syndrome and Cocaine Abuse. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and GABAergic synapse. An important paralog of this gene is GRK2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRK3 Gene

  • Specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and closely related receptors.

Gene Wiki entry for GRK3 Gene

Additional gene information for GRK3 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GRK3 Gene

Genomics for GRK3 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GRK3 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GRK3 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH22J025562 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 650.2 +48.5 48518 8.3 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YBX1 YY1 ZNF766 ZNF143 LOC100996404 GRK3 ENSG00000272977 YES1P1 ENSG00000237387
GH22J025447 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.2 -69.4 -69377 2.8 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF48 ZNF121 GLIS2 ZNF207 CRYBB2P1 GRK3 ENSG00000272977 ENSG00000272798 MIR6817
GH22J025459 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 650.2 -58.4 -58374 0.1 GRK3 ENSG00000272977 MIR6817 CRYBB2P1
GH22J025418 Enhancer 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 7.6 -97.7 -97659 3.6 FEZF1 GLIS2 ZNF213 ATF7 REST TSHZ1 PPARG ATF4 GLIS1 SP7 GC22P025419 ENSG00000272977 ENSG00000272798 LRP5L GRK3 PIR33644
GH22J025757 Promoter/Enhancer 1.8 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 4.8 +242.6 242642 5.9 ATF1 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT GTF3C2 TCF12 GATA2 ATF7 NCOA1 PPARG MYO18B SRRD MIATNB HPS4 TFIP11 GRK3 ENSG00000278960 LOC105372963
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GRK3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for GRK3 Gene

Genomic Locations for GRK3 Gene
211,439 bases
Plus strand
164,446 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GRK3 Gene

Genes around GRK3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GRK3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GRK3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GRK3 Gene

Proteins for GRK3 Gene

  • Protein details for GRK3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q9UGW9

    Protein attributes for GRK3 Gene

    688 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    79710 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GRK3 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GRK3 Gene

Other Protein References for GRK3 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GRK3 Gene

Domains & Families for GRK3 Gene

Gene Families for GRK3 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GRK3 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GPRK subfamily.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GPRK subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GRK3: view

Function for GRK3 Gene

Molecular function for GRK3 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and closely related receptors.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + [beta-adrenergic receptor] = ADP + [beta-adrenergic receptor] phosphate.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GRK3 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GRK3 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GRK3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IEA,TAS 8427589
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity IEA --
GO:0004703 G-protein coupled receptor kinase activity IEA --
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016301 kinase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRK3: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GRK3: view

Animal Models for GRK3 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GRK3:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GRK3 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GRK3

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GRK3

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GRK3 Gene

Localization for GRK3 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GRK3 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 5
nucleus 3
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Nucleus (2)
  • Plasma membrane (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GRK3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRK3: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRK3 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GRK3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GRK3: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GRK3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS,IEA 8427589
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0016310 phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0031623 receptor internalization IDA 20074556
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRK3: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GRK3 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GRK3 Gene

(12) Drugs for GRK3 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Zinc Approved, Investigational Pharma 2430
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist, Activator, Full agonist, Antagonist, Potentiation, Pore Blocker, Target 0

(4) Additional Compounds for GRK3 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 5'-Adenylphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine 5'-diphosphate
  • ADENOSINE-5'-diphosphATE
  • H3ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist, Partial agonist, Antagonist, Gating inhibitor 58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GRK3: view

Transcripts for GRK3 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GRK3 Gene

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GRK3

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRK3 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GRK3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GRK3 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GRK3 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GRK3 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GRK3: view

No data available for mRNA expression in normal human tissues , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GRK3 Gene

Orthologs for GRK3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GRK3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ADRBK2 34 33
  • 99.27 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 93 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ADRBK2 34
  • 91 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ADRBK2 34 33
  • 89.99 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ADRBK2 34 33
  • 89.44 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Adrbk2 33
  • 83.77 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Adrbk2 34 33
  • 83.14 (n)
Grk3 16
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ADRBK2 34 33
  • 82.74 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 83 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia adrbk2 33
  • 82.7 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii adrbk2 34 33
  • 76.26 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP012026 33
  • 63.41 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Gprk1 34 33
  • 63.19 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea grk-2 34 33
  • 63.67 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea Cin.3907 33
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.3907 33
Species where no ortholog for GRK3 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GRK3 Gene

Gene Tree for GRK3 (if available)
Gene Tree for GRK3 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GRK3: view image

Paralogs for GRK3 Gene

Paralogs for GRK3 Gene Pseudogenes for GRK3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GRK3: view

Variants for GRK3 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GRK3 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Variation AA Info Type
VAR_040382 A lung bronchoalveolar carcinoma sample p.Arg104Lys
rs1000023671 -- 25,574,438(+) G/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000039138 -- 25,686,852(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000063056 -- 25,614,841(+) A/G genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000100020 -- 25,700,567(+) T/A/C intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GRK3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv100e203 CNV gain+loss 21179565
dgv175e55 CNV gain 17911159
dgv4550n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv4554n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv577n27 CNV gain 19166990
dgv731e201 CNV deletion 23290073
dgv8074n54 CNV gain 21841781
dgv828e199 CNV deletion 23128226
esv26366 CNV gain 19812545
esv2724087 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2724088 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2751952 CNV gain 17911159
esv2758829 CNV gain+loss 17122850
esv3647477 CNV gain 21293372
esv3647478 CNV gain 21293372
esv3893465 CNV gain+loss 25118596
nsv1058343 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1066595 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1077418 CNV duplication 25765185
nsv1126013 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv436347 CNV deletion 17901297
nsv469691 CNV gain+loss 16826518
nsv471189 CNV gain 18288195
nsv471598 CNV gain+loss 15918152
nsv517205 CNV gain+loss 19592680
nsv7350 OTHER inversion 18451855
nsv962784 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv964615 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv9892 CNV gain 18304495
nsv9893 CNV gain 18304495

Variation tolerance for GRK3 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 14.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.10; 22.33% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GRK3 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRK3 Gene

Disorders for GRK3 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for GRK3 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
whim syndrome
  • whims
cocaine abuse
  • cocaine-related disorders
bipolar disorder
  • major affective disorder 1
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GRK3 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GRK3

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GRK3: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GRK3 Gene

Publications for GRK3 Gene

  1. Chromosome mapping of the human arrestin (SAG), beta-arrestin 2 (ARRB2), and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 (ADRBK2) genes. (PMID: 7695743) Calabrese G … De Blasi A (Genomics 1994) 2 3 22 58
  2. Molecular cloning, functional expression and mRNA analysis of human beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2. (PMID: 8427589) Parruti G … De Blasi A (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1993) 3 4 22 58
  3. beta-Adrenoceptor and GRK3 expression in human lymphocytes is related to blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion. (PMID: 20216086) Oliver E … D'Ocon P (Journal of hypertension 2010) 3 22 58
  4. Allele specific analysis of the ADRBK2 gene in lymphoblastoid cells from bipolar disorder patients. (PMID: 19766236) McCarthy MJ … Turner EE (Journal of psychiatric research 2010) 3 22 58
  5. Leukocyte analysis from WHIM syndrome patients reveals a pivotal role for GRK3 in CXCR4 signaling. (PMID: 18274673) Balabanian K … Bachelerie F (The Journal of clinical investigation 2008) 3 22 58

Products for GRK3 Gene

Sources for GRK3 Gene

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