Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for GRK1 Gene

Aliases for GRK1 Gene

  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 1 2 3 4 5
  • Rhodopsin Kinase 2 3
  • EC 4 56
  • RHOK 3 4
  • RK 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11 56
  • GPRK1 3

External Ids for GRK1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GRK1 Gene

  • RHOK

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GRK1 Gene

  • GC13P112270
  • GC13P113369
  • GC13P114321
  • GC13P094760

Summaries for GRK1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GRK1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The protein phosphorylates rhodopsin and initiates its deactivation. Defects in GRK1 are known to cause Oguchi disease 2 (also known as stationary night blindness Oguchi type-2). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GRK1 Gene

GRK1 (G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GRK1 include Oguchi Disease 2 and Hereditary Night Blindness. Among its related pathways are Phototransduction and Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GRK6.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRK1 Gene

  • Retina-specific kinase involved in the signal turnoff via phosphorylation of rhodopsin (RHO), the G protein- coupled receptor that initiates the phototransduction cascade. This rapid desensitization is essential for scotopic vision and permits rapid adaptation to changes in illumination.

Additional gene information for GRK1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GRK1 Gene

Genomics for GRK1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GRK1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GRK1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH13I113668 Enhancer 0.3 FANTOM5 582 +1.5 1506 0.3 GRK1 GC13M113749 LINC00552
GH13I113583 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 13.9 -82.1 -82107 2.5 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 GLI4 ZNF2 ZNF766 GLIS2 ARID2 ZNF143 ATF7 TFDP1 CDC16 TUBGCP3 GRK1 PCID2 GAS6 GAS6-AS1 TMCO3 PIR60549
GH13I113647 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 19.1 -19.4 -19414 1.7 ESRRA KLF1 NFIB ZNF133 MAX RAD21 E2F1 ZFHX2 E2F6 CHD2 GRK1 PCID2 GAS6-AS1 DCUN1D2 DCUN1D2-AS GAS6 PIR44469 GC13P113655 PIR60549
GH13I113615 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 14.2 -50.3 -50347 2 MAX ZEB2 ZIC2 ZEB1 OSR2 ZFHX2 POLR2A ZNF600 MYC ZBTB17 GRK1 DCUN1D2 DCUN1D2-AS TMCO3 PIR60549 TFDP1 PIR44469 GC13P113655
GH13I113724 Promoter/Enhancer 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE 10.9 +58.6 58567 2.6 ATF1 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF48 TCF12 GLIS2 ZNF143 KLF7 ATF7 RUNX3 TMEM255B GRK1 DCUN1D2 LINC00552 GC13M113749
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around GRK1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GRK1 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for GRK1 Gene

Genomic Locations for GRK1 Gene
70,581 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GRK1 Gene

Genes around GRK1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GRK1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GRK1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GRK1 Gene

Proteins for GRK1 Gene

  • Protein details for GRK1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Rhodopsin kinase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q53X14

    Protein attributes for GRK1 Gene

    563 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    63526 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts (when prenylated) with PDE6D; this promotes release from membranes.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GRK1 Gene

neXtProt entry for GRK1 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for GRK1 Gene


Post-translational modifications for GRK1 Gene

  • Autophosphorylated, Ser-21 is a minor site of autophosphorylation compared to Ser-491 and Thr-492 (By similarity). Phosphorylation at Ser-21 is regulated by light and activated by cAMP.
  • Farnesylation is required for full activity.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GRK1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for GRK1 Gene

Gene Families for GRK1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GPRK subfamily.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GPRK subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GRK1: view

Function for GRK1 Gene

Molecular function for GRK1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=3.5 uM for rhodopsin {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15946941}; KM=10.6 uM for ATP {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15946941}; Vmax=1132 nmol/min/mg enzyme {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15946941};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + [rhodopsin] = ADP + [rhodopsin] phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited by phosphorylation of Ser-21.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Retina-specific kinase involved in the signal turnoff via phosphorylation of rhodopsin (RHO), the G protein- coupled receptor that initiates the phototransduction cascade. This rapid desensitization is essential for scotopic vision and permits rapid adaptation to changes in illumination.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GRK1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GRK1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity TAS 1656454
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity IEA --
GO:0004703 G-protein coupled receptor kinase activity IEA --
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016301 kinase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRK1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GRK1: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for GRK1 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for GRK1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GRK1:

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GRK1 Gene

Localization for GRK1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRK1 Gene

Membrane; Lipid-anchor.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GRK1 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 3
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GRK1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0097381 photoreceptor disc membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRK1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GRK1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GRK1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GRK1: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GRK1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007601 visual perception TAS,IEA --
GO:0008277 regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway TAS 1656454
GO:0016056 rhodopsin mediated signaling pathway TAS 1656454
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRK1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GRK1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GRK1 Gene

(8) Drugs for GRK1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Zinc Approved, Investigational Pharma 2430
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist 0

(11) Additional Compounds for GRK1 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GRK1: view

Transcripts for GRK1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GRK1 Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(5) Additional mRNA sequences :
(3) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(3) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GRK1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRK1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GRK1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GRK1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GRK1 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GRK1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Thyroid (x24.7).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GRK1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Retina (61.1) and Lung (7.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GRK1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GRK1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GRK1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GRK1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GRK1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Retinal-specific. Expressed in rods and cones cells.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GRK1 Gene

  • Eye(4.7)
  • Nervous system(4.2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GRK1 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • mesoderm
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cranial nerve
  • eye
  • head
  • blood
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GRK1: view

Primer Products

Orthologs for GRK1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GRK1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GRK1 33 34
  • 99.04 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GRK1 33 34
  • 85.49 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Grk1 33
  • 84.72 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GRK1 34
  • 84 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Grk1 33 16 34
  • 83.96 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GRK1 33 34
  • 83.75 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GRK1 34
  • 76 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GRK1 34
  • 63 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia grk1 33
  • 64.4 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii grk1a 33 34
  • 69.91 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Gprk1 34
  • 26 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea grk-2 34
  • 25 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 46 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.13752 33
Species where no ortholog for GRK1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GRK1 Gene

Gene Tree for GRK1 (if available)
Gene Tree for GRK1 (if available)

Paralogs for GRK1 Gene

Paralogs for GRK1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GRK1: view

Variants for GRK1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GRK1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 13 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs570621429 pathogenic, Oguchi disease 2, Night blindness, congenital stationary, Oguchi type 2 (CSNBO2) [MIM:613411] 113,731,321(+) C/A/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs777094000 pathogenic, Oguchi disease 2, Night blindness, congenital stationary, Oguchi type 2 (CSNBO2) [MIM:613411] 113,731,288(+) T/A coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1000017906 -- 113,651,392(+) C/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000048103 -- 113,733,534(+) T/A intron_variant
rs1000052613 -- 113,646,576(+) G/A 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GRK1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv256e201 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2748349 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2748350 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2748353 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2748355 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3423874 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3633615 CNV gain 21293372
esv3633616 CNV loss 21293372
esv3633617 CNV gain 21293372
nsv1070622 CNV deletion 25765185

Variation tolerance for GRK1 Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 3.36; 53.86% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GRK1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRK1 Gene

Disorders for GRK1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(10) MalaCards diseases for GRK1 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
oguchi disease 2
  • night blindness, congenital stationary, oguchi type 2; csnbo2
hereditary night blindness
  • congenital night blindness
night blindness
congenital stationary night blindness
  • congenital essential nyctalopia
leber congenital amaurosis 1
  • lca1
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GRK1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Night blindness, congenital stationary, Oguchi type 2 (CSNBO2) [MIM:613411]: A non-progressive retinal disorder characterized by impaired night vision, often associated with nystagmus and myopia. Congenital stationary night blindness Oguchi type is associated with fundus discoloration and abnormally slow dark adaptation. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17070587, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9020843}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for GRK1

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GRK1: view

No data available for Genatlas for GRK1 Gene

Publications for GRK1 Gene

  1. Characterization and chromosomal localization of the gene for human rhodopsin kinase. (PMID: 8812493) Khani SC … Dryja TP (Genomics 1996) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. A novel homozygous GRK1 mutation (P391H) in 2 siblings with Oguchi disease with markedly reduced cone responses. (PMID: 17070587) Hayashi T … Kitahara K (Ophthalmology 2007) 3 4 22 58
  3. The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 13. (PMID: 15057823) Dunham A … Ross MT (Nature 2004) 2 3 4 58
  4. Species-specific differences in expression of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) 7 and GRK1 in mammalian cone photoreceptor cells: implications for cone cell phototransduction. (PMID: 11717351) Weiss ER … Osawa S (The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2001) 3 4 22 58
  5. Defects in the rhodopsin kinase gene in the Oguchi form of stationary night blindness. (PMID: 9020843) Yamamoto S … Dryja TP (Nature genetics 1997) 3 4 22 58

Products for GRK1 Gene

Sources for GRK1 Gene

Loading form....